The themes outlined in the introduction can be readily seen in this chapter. The variety of conflict across the world emerges clearly. The first two decades of the century witnessed a high level of conflict across the world, in many senses continuing the wide-ranging and sustained warfare of the 1690s.1 In East Asia, the expansion of Manchu (Qing) China, which had already led to victory in Mongolia over the Zunghar Confederation in 1696–7, was continued into Tibet. In India, the conflict between the dominant ruler, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (r. 1658–1707), and the Marathas persisted. In Europe, the protracted warfare of the 1640s-90s between the Ottoman (Turkish) empire and at least one of its Christian neighbours resumed in the 1710s, with conflicts with, successively, Russia, Venice and Austria. The last denoted the Habsburg empire, which also ruled Hungary, the modern Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia, and parts of northern Italy and Yugoslavia.
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