Change, not stasis, dominated 1917. Military men responded to the battles of 1916 in ways that produced a new synthesis even as they produced new strains. Change dominated the domestic and diplomatic fronts as well. Strike activity rose sharply in the United Kingdom and Germany. The first Russian Revolution in March 1917 and the Bolshevik Revolution in the following November took Russia out of the war. The United States entered the war in April 1917. By the spring of 1917, new war leaders were in place in Germany, France, and Britain, leaders who would remain in charge until the end. A large mutiny in the French army in May altered the dynamic of Allied strategy, as did the arrival of the American commanding general, John G. Pershing. Both at home and on the battle fronts, soldiers, medics, nurses, and a host of others increasingly saw in the war an unremitting horror.
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