The term administrative justice refers to a miscellaneous range of specialised bodies that make decisions affecting individuals or that resolve disputes between the individual and the government. These range from tribunals, which have essentially become part of the judicial system, to the regulators of many business and professional activities which combine executive, legislative and judicial power. The constitutional issues which they raise concern the separation of powers and the rule of law, the former because there are sometimes close links with the executive, the latter because the bodies sometimes create specialised self-contained laws with their own penalties and sanctions. There are also problems of accountability, since regulators are outside the central structure of ministers and Parliament. However, the ordinary courts provide supervision through their powers of judicial review, thus imposing the rule of law.
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