Political action is collective action. This is especially so in a democracy in which the pursuit of common purposes is important. Collective action by definition involves choices binding on all citizens. However, under the circumstances of politics I identified in Chapter 1 (partial cooperation and conflict in situations of confined generosity and bounded rationality), these choices will exhibit difference and diversity. Fallibility of judgement is one aspect of these circumstances. Even with goodwill and social awareness, citizens are likely to disagree in their political opinions and judgements. Differences of interest as well as of perception and values will lead the citizens to divergent views about how to direct and use the organized political power of the community in order to promote and protect common interests. If political representatives reflect this diversity, then there will be as much disagreement in the legislature as there is in the population. Inevitably, then, both at the level of citizens and of their representatives there is the problem of how disparate views are to be aggregated into the single choice that democratic governments must make.
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