In the nineteenth century, as Part I has shown, American writers both adapted European patterns to their own circumstances, as with Charles Brockden Brown and Anna Katharine Green, and also developed patterns based on features of their own culture, like the wealth of private-detective fiction from Jem Brampton to Nick Carter. Poe is in both camps, seeming somehow based in both Paris and New York at the same time. Largely unnoticed as it has been, there was richness and variety about the kinds of American crime fiction in the nineteenth century that survived into the twentieth century: writers like Wells and Rinehart were substantially innovative and America-based, while the New York clue-puzzlers were effective adaptors of a European model. The position is just as complex with those writers who shaped what has become an enduring image of American fiction, and indeed the American consciousness. The creators of private-eye fiction combine tradition and innovation much as Poe did before them — and with his world-wide impact.
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