The chapter begins with the origins and development of the binary distinction, noting how it has served political and economic agendas and has been reinforced, even magnified, by academic subject disciplines. At one extreme, there are determinist explanations of what makes a society or community. The nineteenth-century, Nazi and neo-Nazi idea of ‘Blood and Soil’ (Blut und Boden) is that ancestry and long-term presence in a place are essential to belonging. At the other extreme, people argue that being part of a society or community is either a completely personal choice or it depends on whether other people accept you as part of a community. I reject both positions.
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