Let $$f:X\rightarrow Y$$ be a bijective one-way function and let $$x\in X$$ . Sometimes it is possible to compute some bits of x from $$f(x)$$ without inverting f. A function f does not necessarily hide everything about x, even if f is one way. Let b be a bit of x. We call b a secure bit of f if it is as difficult to compute b from $$f(x)$$ as it is to compute x from $$f(x)$$ . We prove that the most-significant bit of x is a secure bit of Exp, and that the least-significant bit is a secure bit of RSA and Square.
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