In the wake of its multi-faceted crisis, the EU appears ‘battered and bruised’, with the states of central and eastern Europe (CEE) having taken their fair share of the blows (Phinnemore, 2015). Even before the crisis began, it had been quite a ride for CEE. Over the preceding two decades, the region had experienced the collapse of the communist regimes, democratization, marketization, state-building, and the timeconsuming and often demanding process of meeting the onerous entry criteria for the EU. A brief respite for the 2004 entrants was followed by the global economic downturn, which not only hit the economies of CEE hard, especially in the Baltic states, but also put the eurozone – of which an increasing number of CEE states were becoming members – under severe strain, provoking bailouts and austerity measures. A sense of crisis engendered by pressure on the purses of states and citizens was soon compounded by Russian aggression in Ukraine, by the migration crisis, and by concerns over Brexit. This chapter examines not only how the EU crisis has manifested itself in, and impacted on, the countries of CEE, but also how these states have contributed to the search for (common) resolutions.
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- Central and Eastern Europe: The Sacrifices of Solidarity, the Discomforts of Diversity and the Vexations of Vulnerabilities
- Macmillan Education UK
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- Chapter 13