Skip to main content
main-content
Top

About this book

This is the leading guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism, covering everything from understanding plagiarism and identifying sources to setting out quotations and creating a reference list. Comprehensive and accessible, it provides readers with detailed examples of print and electronic sources, business, government, technical and legal publications, works of art, images and much more. Packed with practical tips and example sources in both citations and reference lists, it makes referencing manageable and easy to follow for everyone.

The eleventh edition of this bestselling book is an essential resource for anyone doing original research for written assignments, including students, teachers, authors, librarians and non-academic researchers.

Cite Them Right is also available as an institutional subscription product, Cite Them Right Online.

Table of Contents

Section A. What is referencing?

Abstract
Referencing is the process of acknowledging other peoples work when you have used it in your assignment or research.
Richard Pears, Graham Shields

Section B. How to cite

Abstract
When you cite, you are referring to someone elses work or ideas in the text of your essay or assignment. It is often called in-text citing. It is important to remember that citations in your assignments must be included in the final word count.
Richard Pears, Graham Shields

Section C. How to quote, paraphrase and summarise

Abstract
Quotations should be relevant to your arguments and used judiciously in your text. Excessive use of quotations can disrupt the flow of your writing and prevent you from demonstrating your understanding and analysis of the sources you have read. Your tutor will prefer to read your own interpretation of the evidence.
Richard Pears, Graham Shields

Section D. How to reference

Abstract
Students often find it difficult to differentiate between the terms reference list and bibliography. The reference list is the detailed list of references cited in your assignment. It includes the full bibliographical information on sources so that the reader can identify and locate the work/item.
Richard Pears, Graham Shields

Section E. Harvard referencing style

Abstract
NB Before looking at specific examples in this section, you should ensure that you have read Sections B, C and D.
Richard Pears, Graham Shields

Section F. American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style

Abstract
NB Before looking at specific examples in this section, you should ensure that you have read Sections B, C and D.
Richard Pears, Graham Shields

Section G. Chicago referencing style

Abstract
There are two formats within Chicago referencing style: notes and bibliography (NB) and author-date. The Chicago NB format is used in the humanities (see below).
Richard Pears, Graham Shields

Section H. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) referencing style

Abstract
The IEEE referencing style is a numeric citation system used in engineering, electronics, computer science and information technology publications. This section is based on IEEE (2018) IEEE reference guide.
Richard Pears, Graham Shields

Section I. Modern Humanities Research Association (MHRA) referencing style

Abstract
The MHRA referencing style is used in some arts and humanities publications.
Richard Pears, Graham Shields

Section J. Modern Language Association (MLA) referencing style

Abstract
The MLA referencing style is often used in humanities subjects, including languages and literature. It is an author-page style:
Richard Pears, Graham Shields

Section K. Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA)

Abstract
Many UK law schools and legal publications use the 4th edition of the Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA). For more information on using OSCOLA,
Richard Pears, Graham Shields

Section L. Vancouver referencing style

Abstract
The Vancouver referencing style is a numeric citation system used in biomedical, health and some science publications. It was first defined in 1978 at the conference of the International Committee of Medical
Richard Pears, Graham Shields
Additional information