A striking development is the ‘coming of age’ of citizen interest organization, mobilization and representation at EU level. There is a dense landscape of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) organized and advocating at EU level for virtually every imaginable cause, from the unemployed to Muslim women to groups countering the long-held monopoly of producer groups in technical domains such as financial services. A number of EU NGOs are also relatively well resourced. One segment alone, environmental NGOs, has over 130 EU-oriented staff, and self-declares an annual spend on lobbying the EU institutions of over €13 million. The WWF European Policy Office, Transport and the Environment, and the European Consumers Organization each has a staffing complement comparable to the group of best-resourced business organizations, bar one (Table 4.1). EU NGOs have recently located a variety of wealthy independent foundations from which to draw financial support. Individual NGOs are highly networked by formal organizations and informal structures within and across segments, sometimes working alongside one another in purpose renovated buildings, often working on joint campaigns.
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