Interest in citizenship revived in the 1980s (Kymlicka, 2002: ch.7). This was due, firstly, to corresponding debates concerning agency, class, social movements and identity and, secondly, as a response to the rise of economic liberalism with its emphasis upon commodified market values, consumerism, self-interest and populist authoritarianism. Furthermore, community and civil society came to be regarded as crucial sites of civic association and political participation.1 To some extent these debates revitalized long-standing oppositions, with the Right emphasizing market liberties and socio-moral obligations against what they saw as the dominance of the ‘big state’; and the Left stressing social equality, welfare entitlements and political rights against the new hegemony of market forces (the ‘big market’).
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