In the book so far there has been a leitmotif, a sub-theme, which has run through the analysis without being overtly recognised. This theme is the constitution of citizenship. Citizenship mediates interactions between individuals and the state. Our understanding of the concept is important in shaping the contours of government and law, for the creation of social policies, and for the impacts of policy on individuals. Writers such as Phillips (1991), Young (1990) and Lister (1997) argue that universal citizenship can only be achieved where all members of a society participate equally in coming to a working definition that specifies boundaries, privileges and duties. In the first half of the chapter, therefore, I elaborate four prerequisites for citizenship: membership; participation; entitlements, and obligations. In the second half, I assess the reciprocal influence of citizenship over the formulation of social policy and, in turn, the influence of social policy on the quality of citizenship.
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Robert F. Drake
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