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The previous chapters covered some fundamental aspects of the service dynamics as applied to IT and how service dynamics define the cloud and cloud processes. We also discussed how the enterprise platforms that characterized the first wave of standard high-volume (SHV) servers evolved into second-wave cloud platforms under a service dynamic with strong customization and built-to-order components. The second wave drivers and adopters were the largest cloud service providers (CSPs) worldwide with the concept of application-specific cloud servers (ASCPs). A competitive advantage for these players and initial barrier to entry to smaller players was the nonrecurring engineering (NRE) cost to design and manufacture the desired customizations. However, as platform providers and consumers went through the learning curve and achieved increasing technology maturity, the benefits of customization became democratized and available to smaller CSPs.
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“Amazon Echo,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amazon_Echo , 2016.
“Create a Smarter Home with Alexa: Introducing the Smart Home Skill API,” Amazon Developer, https://developer.amazon.com/public/solutions/alexa/alexa-skills-kit/content/smart-home , 2016.
R. Baldwin, “Shipshape: Tracking 40 Years of FedEx Tech,” Wired Magazine, https://www.wired.com/2013/04/40-years-of-fedex/ , April 17, 2013.
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Curiously, a similar problem existed with early e-mail routing with the uucp server application, which required the sender to specify a complete routing path for the intervening machines using the ‘!’ (“bang”) notation, such as ogc!intel-gw!inteloa!egcastro. Today this routing is automatic: The user only needs to know the recipient host name and user name, using the user@hostname notation. The Domain Name System (DNS) takes care of locating the host, and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) routes the message. This notation is still in use today, as an audit trail mechanism if the user cares to find out about the routing of a message after its arrival.
C. Evans, “10 Facts That May Not Know About FedEx,” IntegraCore, https://blog.integracore.com/packaging/10-facts-that-may-not-know-about-fedex/ , 2013.
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Understanding Metadata (Baltimore, MD: National Information Standards Organization, 2004).
A. Verma, S. Venkataraman, et al., Efficient Metadata Management for Cloud Computing Applications (Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, 2010), https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/14820 ; G. Shankaranarayanan and A. Even, “The Metadata Enigma,” Communications of the ACM, 49 (2), February 2006.
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A. Gyrard and M. Serrano, “A Unified Semantic Engine for Internet of Things and Smart Cities: From Sensor Data to End-Users Applications,” 2015 IEEE International Conference on Data Science and Data Intensive Systems, 718–725, 2015.
J. Rico, J. Sancho, A. Díaz, J. González, P. Sánchez, B. Alvarez, L. Cardona, and C. Ramis, “Low Power Wireless Sensor Networks: Secure Applications and Remote Distribution of FW Updates with Key Management on WSN.” In Trusted Computing for Embedded Systems, 71–111 (New York, NY: Springer, 2015).
H. Schaffers, N. Kominos, M. Pallot, B. Trousse, M. Nilsson, and A. Oliveira, “Smart Cities and the Future Internet: Towards Cooperation Frameworks for Open Innovation,” Future Internet Assembly, 431–446, 2011.
J. Lee, M. Hancock, and M.-C. Hu, “Towards an Effective Framework for Building Smart Cities: Lessons from Seoul and San Francisco,” Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 89, 80–99, 2014.
T. Nam and T. Pardo, “Conceptualizing Smart City with Dimensions of Technology, People, and Institutions,” Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Digital Government in Challenging Times, ACM, 282–291, 2011.
H. Chourabi, C. Nam, S. Walker, J. Gil-Garcia, S. Mellouli, T. Pardo, and H. Scholl, “Understanding Smart Cities: An Integrative Framework,” In Proceedings of the 2012 Hawaii International Conference on System Science (HICSS-45), 2012.
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N. Earle, “50 Billion Things, Coming to a Cloud Near You,” Cisco: The Platform, http://blogs.cisco.com/news/50-billion-things-coming-to-a-cloud-near-you , June 10, 2015.
D. Gunduz, K. Stamatiou, N. Michelusi, and M. Zorzi, “Designing Intelligent Energy Harvesting Communication Systems,” IEEE Communications Magazine, 52 (1), 210–216, 2014.
Y. Peng, Q. Song, Y. Yu, and F. Wang, “Fault-Tolerant Routing Mechanism Based on Network Coding in Wireless Mesh Networks,” Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 37, 259–272, 2014.
M. Makkes, R. Cushing, A. Oprescu, R. Koning, P. Grosso, R. Meijer, and C. de Laat, “Smart Cyber Infrastructure for Big Data Processing,” 2014 IEEE Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, 1–3, 2014.
M. Foulonneau, S. Turki, G. Vidou, and S. Martin, “Open Data in Service Design,” Electronic Journal of e-Government, 12 (2), 2014.
J. Espina, T. Falck, A. Panousopoulou, L. Schmitt, O. Mülhens, and G. Yang, “Network Topologies, Communication Protocols, and Standards,” 2014 IEEE Body Sensor Networks Conference, 189–236, 2014.
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Y. Yoon and J. Chun, “Tracking Model for Abnormal Behavior from Multiple Network CCTV Using the Kalman Filter,” In Computer Science and Its Applications, 933–939 (Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2015).
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J. Kim, “Making Cities Global: The New City Development of Songdo, Yuijapu and Lingang,” Planning Perspectives, 29 (3), 329–356, 2014.
Juniper Research, “Singapore Named ‘Global Smart City-2016,’” Juniper Research, Ltd., https://www.juniperresearch.com/press/press-releases/singapore-named-global-smart-city-2016 , 2016.
See https://www.shbarcelona.com/blog/en/ for resources and news available for smart city Barcelona.
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I. Capdevila and M. Zarlenga, “Smart City or Smart Citizens? The Barcelona Case,” Journal of Strategy and Management, 8 (3), 266–282, 2015.
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T. Miller and A. Kim, 2016 Index of Economic Freedom (Washington, DC: Institute for Economic Freedom and Opportunity, 2016). http://www.heritage.org/index/ranking
M. Totty, “Five Cities That Are Leading the Way.”
The Economist, “All Together Now: What Entrepreneurial Ecosystems Need to Flourish, Special Report: Tech Startups,” Economist.com, http://www.economist.com/news/special-report/21593582-what-entrepreneurial-ecosystems-need-flourish-all-together-now , January 18, 2014.
M. de Villiers, “Why Does a Smart Nation Matter? Singapore, A Tech Innovation Hub, Is Tackling Tomorrow’s Big Challenges Today,” Forbes.com, www.smartnation-forbes.com , 2016.
M. Watts and N. Purnell, “Singapore Is Taking the ‘Smart City’ to a Whole New Level,” The Wall Street Journal, April 24, 2016.
N. Purnell and J. Watts, “Singapore’s Smart Nation: The Singapore Government Is Testing an Ambitious Range of Smart City Technologies to Aid City Planners,” The Wall Street Journal, http://graphics.wsj.com/singapore-smart-city/ , April 24, 2016.
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