Cognitive development is an area in psychology that is concerned with the study of how thinking skills develop over time. Cognition includes the psychology of thinking, what we usually call intelligence. Theories of cognitive development have traditionally focused on the period from infancy to adulthood. One theory has dominated this field during the latter half of the 20th century, and that is Piaget’s stage theory of cognitive development. The testing approach (intelligence tests) is more concerned with cognitive products than the process of development. This approach attempts to ‘measure behaviours that reflect mental development and arrive at scores that predict future performance such as later intelligence, school achievement and adult vocational success’ (Berk, 2001, p. 158). In Britain and the US, the term intelligence is used to refer to a number of different abilities, skills, talents, and knowledge, generally all referring to people’s mental or cognitive abilities.
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- Cognitive Development: Cross-Cultural Perspectives
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