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About this book

This major new text assesses the persistence of nationalism in a globalizing world and analyses the current nature and future prospects of this multi-faceted and evolving ideology.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Abstract
Since the end of the Cold War, all manner of minority, sub-state, terrorist, democratic, irredentist and post-communist nationalisms have been used as evidence of a phenomenon generically termed ‘the rise of nationalism’. Some have resulted in violent and bloody conflicts, as in the breakup of Yugoslavia, while others have had an impact on well-established democracies like the United Kingdom, where in 2007 nationalist parties came to power in Scotland (a position spectacularly consolidated in 2011) and in Wales (as junior coalition partner for four years). At the same time, however, the widely anticipated decline of the nation-state in the face of globalisation does not seem to have materialised (Ohmae 1996). Interpreting the principle of national self-determination to mean different degrees of autonomy, or sovereignty, is one pragmatic response to the evolution of globalisation and regional governance, of which the European Union is the most advanced example. Alan Milward (1994, 3) showed the European Community to have been the ‘buttress […] of the nation-state’s post-war construction’, and nation-states still rely on the returns of regionalisation for nation-building. However, contemporary sub-state nationalists in the likes of Scotland and Catalonia also use the process of regional integration to support demands for greater autonomy from precisely those nation-states. This is just one example of how nation-states and nationalist movements are responding to the current political context, which is different to that faced by nineteenth and even twentieth-century nationalists. Regionalisation, in turn, is one among a range of contemporary phenomena which can be broadly termed the cosmopolitan challenge, and which exist in creative tension with both sub-state nationalism and nation-building. Building on these trends and concepts, this text sets out to explore various aspects of nationalist ideology in the context of twenty-first-century politics.
Claire Sutherland

1. Why the Nation? Theories of Nationalism

Abstract
Can any one theory explain nationalism? What are the differences between today’s nationalisms and nineteenth and twentieth-century nationalisms?
Claire Sutherland

2. Who Belongs to the Nation? From Patriotism to Terrorism

Abstract
How do we distinguish between the many types of nationalism and understand its extreme manifestations? Is there a difference between patriotism and nationalism?
Claire Sutherland

3. What Kind of Nation: Communist, Democratic, Multicultural?

Abstract
Is it possible to reconcile communist and nationalist ideologies? How does nationalism relate to multiculturalism? What is the relationship between nationalism and democracy?
Claire Sutherland

4. Whither the Stateless Nation? Integrating Sub-State Nationalism

Abstract
How do sub-state nationalists define independence in an interdependent world? What roles do ethnicity and territory play in their ideologies?
Claire Sutherland

5. Where is the Nation-State? Managing Citizenship and Migration

Abstract
How are nationalism and citizenship interlinked? How does migration affect nationality and citizenship?
Claire Sutherland

6. What Now for the Nation? Responding to Globalisation and Regionalisation

Abstract
Does globalisation represent a challenge to nationalism? Can nationalism and regionalism be reconciled?
Claire Sutherland

Conclusion

Abstract
Nation-builders have long worked to maintain popular loyalty and legitimacy, but the combination of individuals’ heightened mobility, global technologies and regional integration has put extra pressure on neatly bordered constructions of the nation-state. The cosmopolitan challenge has thus lent a new immediacy to the tension between globalisation and the ‘modern conception’ of the sovereign state, which has been described as ‘fully, flatly, and evenly operative over each square centimetre of a legally demarcated territory’ (Anderson 1991, 19). For instance, many post-communist states have found the transnational dimensions of twenty-first-century nation-building to be qualitatively different from the relative introspection of the Cold War (Duara 2009, 36). In other cases, postcolonial states relatively late in achieving independence were quickly confronted with the impact of global trade and other flows on their fledgling nation-building strategies. Still others, like India and China, have led the way in detaching nation-building from the strict confines of the territorial state by seeking to involve their national diaspora in the country’s modernisation and development (Barabantseva & Sutherland 2011). Ironically, new conceptions of ‘post-nationalism’ and ‘post-sovereignty’ seem to echo pre-Westphalian polities, or ‘the older imagining, where states were defined by centres [and] borders were porous and indistinct’ (Anderson 1991, 19).
Claire Sutherland
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