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Computational Intelligence, CI, is the second group of methods in Artificial Intelligence. It is a complementary approach with respect to symbolic AI.
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Edward Lee Thorndike—a professor of psychology at Columbia University. His work concerns zoopsychology and educational psychology. He was the President of the American Psychological Association.
In fact, ACT-R is a hybrid AI system, which is based on both the symbolic approach and the sub-symbolic (CI) approach.
Bayes networks are presented in Chap. 12.
Any human mental process is a good example here. Although a single biological neuron does not think, a brain treated as a network consisting of neurons thinks.
James Lloyd “Jay” McClelland—a professor of psychology at Carnegie Mellon University and Stanford University. His work concerns psycholinguistics and applications of connectionist models in pattern recognition, speech understanding, machine learning, etc.
The categories, also called classes, should be defined earlier, i.e., when we formulate the problem. For example, if a classifier is constructed to support medical diagnosis, then disease entities are the categories.
Such a set corresponds to human experience in solving a given classification problem. For example, in medical diagnosis it corresponds to the diagnostic experience of a physician.
There can be other conditions for algorithm termination, e.g., a fixed number of generations, computation time, etc.
- Computational Intelligence
- Springer International Publishing
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- Chapter 3