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About this book

See how the principles of Service Science govern the dynamics driving the adoption of cloud computing in the industry.

Cloud as Service shows you how the evolution of enterprise computing platforms to application-specific cloud platforms (ASCPs) have aligned to business needs. You'll also learn processes for developing and building ASCPs. You'll gain insight into how executives, managers, and technologists are utilizing cloud services, cloud service providers, equipment manufacturers, and software and application vendors participating in cloud supply chains.

For business, the appeal of cloud computing must go beyond the notion of convenient, on-demand access of networked pooled access to computing resources. Industry leaders have learned to apply cloud computing to become more nimble, cost effective, and customer engaging as they strive for competitive advantage, regardless of size. These companies define and build cloud platforms customized for their needs rather than using someone else’s.

This book shows you how to use a holistic, end-to-end view of platform planning, platform development, supply chains and operations to collapse platform development times to a fraction of the original time. You’ll see that strategies for selling to the cloud market are essentially incomplete; and that in order to be successful, businesses must become cloud service businesses themselves, incorporating cloud technologies in their engineering, IT, sales and marketing, and delivery processes.

What You'll Learn:

Historical perspective to provide insight into the dynamics driving cloud evolution today

State of the art in IT requirements and cloud solutionsThe value of User Experience (UX) driven design principles

The crucial roles of Service Brokers and Service Assurance Managers

The landscape of emerging cloud services and what they mean to your enterprise

Service Portals and Enterprise Service Buses

Who This Book Is For:

CIOs, CTOs, data center architects, solution architects and application engineers

Educational institutions building a systems integration curriculum

Developers who want to understand how their work fits in the cloud ecosystem

Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Cloud Computing as a Service

For organizations seeking to transform from product-oriented to service-oriented enterprises, the cloud is the place to start. Simplicity, flexibility, choice, and the ability to access computing resources on demand are the driving forces behind cloud computing. The cloud has become the engine for business growth and enterprise service transformation. The cloud transforms how we interact with retail, transportation, health care, media, banking, investing, entertainment, and people to enable the cocreation of value through dynamic service experiences. This chapter introduces the foundations of cloud computing with an overview of service innovation concepts to set the stage for the chapters that follow.
Enrique Castro-Leon, Robert Harmon



Chapter 2. The Service Science Foundation for Cloud Computing

Service science merges technology with an understanding of business management, processes, organizational design, and culture to develop and apply tools to address business problems and create market opportunities. It is an interdisciplinary field that combines organization and human understanding with business and technological understanding to categorize and explain the many types of service systems that exist as well as how service systems interact and evolve to co-create value. Managers seeking to develop innovative service solutions will need to understand how to apply their organization’s unique resources and capabilities in an effective, efficient, and value-creating manner. This chapter covers service science, service-dominant logic, product-service systems, the service thinking mindset, T-shaped professionals, the emerging frontiers for service innovation, and insights for the implementation of service innovation strategies
Enrique Castro-Leon, Robert Harmon

Chapter 3. Cloud Computing: Implications for Service Transformation

The cloud computing business model is evolving into a compelling platform for service innovation that is transforming the behavior of users and organizations to disrupt existing markets and create new ones. The essential advantage of cloud computing derives from the ability to leverage IT to engage users and other actors in the creation of innovative value propositions and to reengineer existing ones. For IT organizations and enterprises, a transition to cloud-oriented services occurs when an application migrates to the cloud with minimal changes to its design and delivery continues to support current performance and security requirements. For a cloud-based service transformation, much more is required. IT objectives drive larger, comprehensive application changes. Transforming the IT organization to embrace cloud-based service innovation involves rethinking and redesigning the organization’s approach to its customers. This chapter covers service transformation strategies, business models, and a framework for the transformation process.
Enrique Castro-Leon, Robert Harmon



Chapter 4. Evolution of Cloud Server Platforms

Cloud operators realized early on that servers originally designed for enterprise data centers were not optimal for their application. These servers are well known branded machines from manufacturers such as Dell, Hewlett Packard Enterprise or SuperMicro, known as original equipment manufacturers, or OEMs. Instead, they deploy in house designs with machines built by contract original design manufacturers, or ODMs. The cloud platform ecosystem represents an evolution of the standard high volume enterprise server ecosytem that started in the early 1990s. We document this evolution and look at some of the business and technology opportunities that this evolution brings.
Enrique Castro-Leon, Robert Harmon

Chapter 5. Application-Specific Cloud Platforms

A number of events in IT practices paved the way to the adoption of the cloud we see today. One of them took place primarily in large organizations: the service-oriented architecture (SOA) transformation between the turn of the century and 2007, in which application silos were broken up into loosely coupled reusable service components (servicelets) linked by web services or RESTful application programming interfaces (APIs). This is the transformation described in the Uber and Netflix case studies in Chapter 4. IT became modular, with the servicelet as a unit of composition. We look at the notion of application-specific cloud platform (ASCP) as the hardware platform that runs this new environment.
Enrique Castro-Leon, Robert Harmon

Chapter 6. Building Application-Specific Platforms

We covered the evolution of cloud server platforms in Chapter 4 and technical characteristics of these platforms in Chapter 5. Now let us look at processes and methodologies for building application-specific cloud platforms (ASCPs) as well as the companies and organizations that manufacture ASCPs. ASCPs are instances of external platforms. Internal platforms enable a company to increase economic efficiency through reuse of technology, processes and capital assets. External platforms amplify this benefit through network effects where additional companies join the effort, effectively forming a platform ecosystem.
Enrique Castro-Leon, Robert Harmon



Chapter 7. Bare Metal Clouds

The unit of delivery for the usual IaaS is a virtual machine. This mode of delivery is appropriate when the goal is to carve out a nonfungible resource, namely a pool of servers possibly of different vintages and vendors with diverse forms of storage and heterogeneous network resources, into a normalized service offering: abstracted compute nodes with N processors, M gigabytes of memory, and C network interface controllers (NICs). To customers, the virtualized servers appear homogeneous even though the physical machines on which these nodes are deployed can be different and with varying configurations.
Enrique Castro-Leon, Robert Harmon

Chapter 8. Service Strategy and Examples

Let us explore ways to put the concepts in the previous chapters to work. The motto “Think globally, act locally” applies here. A crucial piece of insight from the concepts we have discussed so far is that, given that the cloud is intrinsically service-oriented, understanding and internalizing the notion of service is a necessary condition to success in cloud space. We discovered in Chapter 4 that long-term planning approaches, successful in the first wave in the enterprise cycle, are less effective in the fast-changing cloud markets. It became necessary to shorten the process by engaging with end users, not just to gather requirements for future products, but also to actually jointly plan, design, and even manufacture the platforms. Organizations need to embrace cloud internally to succeed in cloud markets. This approach brings additional benefits: Embracing a service culture and taking advantage of cloud technology to speed up internal processes will actually endow the organization with the agility and timeliness it was seeking to succeed in the cloud market.
Enrique Castro-Leon, Robert Harmon



Chapter 9. Cloud as a Service Evolution

The previous chapters covered some fundamental aspects of the service dynamics as applied to IT and how service dynamics define the cloud and cloud processes. We also discussed how the enterprise platforms that characterized the first wave of standard high-volume (SHV) servers evolved into second-wave cloud platforms under a service dynamic with strong customization and built-to-order components. The second wave drivers and adopters were the largest cloud service providers (CSPs) worldwide with the concept of application-specific cloud servers (ASCPs). A competitive advantage for these players and initial barrier to entry to smaller players was the nonrecurring engineering (NRE) cost to design and manufacture the desired customizations. However, as platform providers and consumers went through the learning curve and achieved increasing technology maturity, the benefits of customization became democratized and available to smaller CSPs.
Enrique Castro-Leon, Robert Harmon
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