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About this book

This timely textbook presents a comprehensive guide to the core topics in cybersecurity, covering issues of security that extend beyond traditional computer networks to the ubiquitous mobile communications and online social networks that have become part of our daily lives. In the context of our growing dependence on an ever-changing digital ecosystem, this book stresses the importance of security awareness, whether in our homes, our businesses, or our public spaces.

This fully updated new edition features new material on the security issues raised by blockchain technology, and its use in logistics, digital ledgers, payments systems, and digital contracts.

Topics and features:

Explores the full range of security risks and vulnerabilities in all connected digital systemsInspires debate over future developments and improvements necessary to enhance the security of personal, public, and private enterprise systemsRaises thought-provoking questions regarding legislative, legal, social, technical, and ethical challenges, such as the tension between privacy and securityDescribes the fundamentals of traditional computer network security, and common threats to securityReviews the current landscape of tools, algorithms, and professional best practices in use to maintain security of digital systemsDiscusses the security issues introduced by the latest generation of network technologies, including mobile systems, cloud computing, and blockchainPresents exercises of varying levels of difficulty at the end of each chapter, and concludes with a diverse selection of practical projectsOffers supplementary material for students and instructors at an associated website, including slides, additional projects, and syllabus suggestions

This important textbook/reference is an invaluable resource for students of computer science, engineering, and information management, as well as for practitioners working in data- and information-intensive industries.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Traditional Computer Network Security

Frontmatter

1. Computer Network Fundamentals

Abstract
The chapter explores the fundaments of a computer network by focusing on the three components of a computer network consisting of entities—the users—a stable communication medium, and the rules of communication—the protocols. Communicating entities are usually smart devices forming a distributed system consisting of loosely coupled computers and other devices. Any two of these devices can communicate with each other through a communication medium. In order for these connected devices to be considered a communicating network, there must be a set of communicating rules or protocols each device in the network must follow to communicate with another device in the network. The resulting combination consisting of hardware and software is a computer communication network or computer network.
Joseph Migga Kizza

2. Computer Network Security Fundamentals

Abstract
In this chapter, we give a general definition of the state of security in any environment and then localize this security concept in a computer network. In doing this, the chapter focuses on the computer network infrastructure and how such infrastructure can be protected from unauthorized access. Prevention of unauthorized access depends on effective adherence to security protocols, standards, and best practices. These are also introduced and discussed here.
Joseph Migga Kizza

Security Issues and Challenges in the Traditional Computer Network

Frontmatter

3. Security Threats and Threat Motives to Computer Networks

Abstract
The widespread and ubiquitous use of computing technology with the computer network as its base is creating fertile ground for illegal and unauthorized access to digital systems relying on and using the evolving digital technology. Threats and motives for attacks to digital systems are on the rise, unabated by a strong but insufficient response. Hacker tools are becoming more sophisticated and powerful. The threat itself comes in many forms, including viruses, worms, distributed denial of services, electronic bombs, and derives many motives, including revenge, personal gains, hate, and joy rides, to name but a few. This chapter explores the sources and types of these threats, the hacker community groups, the different and changing threat motives, and the management of these threats. Threat awareness is also discussed.
Joseph Migga Kizza

4. Introduction to Computer Network Vulnerabilities

Abstract
System vulnerabilities are weaknesses in the software or hardware on a server or a client that can be exploited by a determined intruder to gain access to or shut down a network. Vulnerabilities exist not only in the hardware and software that constitute a computer system but also in policies and procedures, especially security policies and procedures, that are used in a computer network system and in users and employees of the computer network systems. Vulnerabilities can be found in so many areas in a network system and are indeed anything in a computer network that has the potential to cause or be exploited for an advantage. This chapter explores the sources and assessment of a computer network system’s vulnerabilities.
Joseph Migga Kizza

5. Cyber Crimes and Hackers

Abstract
This chapter surveys the history and examples of cybercrimes, their types, costs to society, and strategies of detection and prevention. In the discussion, it is noted that a great number of computer attacks fall into two categories: penetration and denial of service attacks. And these are discussed in depth. Attack motives are also discussed. Although it is difficult to estimate the actual costs of e-attacks on physical system resources, progress is being made for better and more accurate estimates. An in-depth discussion of the social and ethical consequences that include psychological effects, moral decay, loss of privacy, and loss of trust follows. Hackers, hacker types, communities, and the history of hacking are also discussed. The chapter ends with a discussion of ways to deal with the rising tide of cybercrimes.
Joseph Migga Kizza

6. Scripting and Security in Computer Networks and Web Browsers

Abstract
The automation and dynamic growth of an interactive web have created a huge demand for a new type of web programming to meet the growing demand of millions of web services from users around the world. Some services and requests are tedious and others are complex, yet the rate of growth of the number of requests, the amount of services requested in terms of bandwidth, and the quality of information requested warrant a technology to automate the process. Script technology plays a big role in making the web active. Scripting is a powerful automation technology on the Internet that makes the web highly interactive. While scripting is making the Internet and, in particular, the web alive and productive, it also introduces a huge security problem to an already security-burdened cyberspace. Hostile scripts embedded in web pages, as well as HTML formatted e-mail, attachments, and applets, introduce a new security paradigm in cyberspace security. In particular, security problems are introduced in two areas: at the server and at the client. This chapter focuses on these two areas as it explores computer networks scripts and security. In particular, the graphic user interface (GUI) and the Internet information exchange (CGI).
Joseph Migga Kizza

7. Security Assessment, Analysis, and Assurance

Abstract
As computing technology becomes ubiquitous, the world is getting more and more interconnected. Major organization systems are interconnected to other systems through networks. The bigger the networks, the bigger the security problems involving the system resources on these networks. Many companies, businesses, and institutions whose systems work in coordination and collaboration with other systems, as they share each other’s’ resources and communicate with each other, face a constant security threat from these systems, yet the collaboration must go on. The risks and potential of someone intruding into these systems for sabotage, vandalism, and resource theft are high. For security assurance of networked systems, such risks must be assessed to determine the adequacy of existing security measures and safeguards and also to determine if improvement in the existing measures is needed. Such an assessment process consists of a comprehensive and continuous analysis of the security threat risk to the system that involves an auditing of the system, assessing the vulnerabilities of the system, and maintaining a creditable security policy and a vigorous regime for the installation of patches and security updates. In addition, there must also be a standard process to minimize the risks associated with nonstandard security implementations across shared infrastructures and end systems. This chapter focuses on all these issues.
Joseph Migga Kizza

Dealing with Computer Network Security Challenges

Frontmatter

8. Disaster Management

Abstract
Disasters, natural or man-made, may cause great devastation to society and the environment, and most of them have long-lasting effects. To mitigate disaster effects on society and businesses, disaster management skills are needed. In information technology, disaster situations are big security problems to the Enterprise information systems that must be handled with skills just like other security problems we have discussed so far in this book. The growing business use and dependence on computing systems, the ever increasing speed of data transmission, and the forces of globalization all have forced businesses into a new digitized global corner that demands high-speed data access to meet the demands of the technology savvy customers in a highly competitive global environment. In response, high-volume and high-speed databases have been set up. For a business to remain competitive and probably ahead of its competitors, all business systems must remain online and in service 24/7. No modern business can afford a disaster to happen to its online systems. Failing to achieve that level of service would mean the failure of the business. Thousands of businesses close or lose millions of dollars every year owing to the level of attention they give to their online systems and failing to protect them against disasters such as fire, power outage, theft, equipment failure, viruses, hackers, and human errors. This chapter focuses on disaster management as a major information systems’ security problem and starts a discussion of ways, tools, and best practices of dealing with disasters and mitigating their long-term effects on business information systems. This is discussed in three parts: disaster prevention, response, and recovery.
Joseph Migga Kizza

9. Access Control and Authorization

Abstract
Access control is a process to determine “Who does what to what,” based on a policy.
One of the system administrator’s biggest problems, which can turn into a nightmare if it is not well handled, is controlling access of who gets in and out of the system and who uses what resources, when, and in what amounts. Access control is restricting this access to a system or system resources based on something other than the identity of the user. Access control, consisting of four elements: subjects, objects, operations, and a reference monitor, is one of the major cornerstones of system security. It is essential to determine how access control protection can be provided to each of the system resources. To do this, you need good access control and access protection policies. Authorization, commonly known as access permissions, is a set of access rights and access privileges granted to a user to benefit from a particular system resource. It is a determination of whether a user has permission to access, read, modify, insert, or delete certain data, or to execute certain programs. This chapter focuses on a detailed examination and discussion of these two processes that ensure systems safety.
Joseph Migga Kizza

10. Authentication

Abstract
Authentication is the process of validating the identity of someone or something. It uses information provided to the authenticator to determine whether someone or something is, in fact, who or what it is declared to be. In private and public computing systems, for example, in computer networks, the process of authentication commonly involves someone, usually the user, using a password provided by the system administrator to logon. The user’s possession of a password is meant to guarantee that the user is authentic. It means that at some previous time, the user requested, from the system administrator, and the administrator assigned and or registered a self-selected password. The user presents this password to the logon to prove that he or she knows something no one else could know. Generally, authentication requires the presentation of credentials or items of value to really prove the claim of who one is. This chapter discusses this process of authentic proof of a system user.
Joseph Migga Kizza

11. Cryptography

Abstract
As society speeds, and in most cases is literally dragged, into the new information society, the kind of face-to-face and paper-traceable communication that characterized the non-digital communication before the information revolution—the kind of communication that guaranteed personal privacy and security—is increasingly becoming redefined into the new information society where faceless digital communication regimes are guaranteeing neither information and personal security nor personal privacy. Centuries-old and trusted global transactions and commercial systems that guaranteed business exchange and payment systems are being eroded and replaced with difficult to trust and easily counterfeitable electronic systems. The fight for personal privacy has never been any more fierce, and the integrity and confidentiality of data have become more urgent than ever before. The security and trust of digital transaction systems have become of critical importance as more and more organizations and businesses join the e-commerce train. Cryptography is being increasingly used to fight off this massive invasion of individual privacy and security, to guarantee data integrity and confidentiality, and to bring trust in global e-commerce. It guarantees authorization, authentication, integrity, confidentiality, and nonrepudiation in all communications and data exchanges in the new information society. This chapter focuses on this.
Joseph Migga Kizza

12. Firewalls

Abstract
The rapid growth of the Internet has led to a corresponding growth of both users and activities in cyberspace. Unfortunately, not all these users and their activities are reputable; thus, the Internet has been increasingly, at least to many individuals and businesses, turning into a “bad Internet.” Bad people are plowing the cyberspace with evil activities that include, among other things, intrusion into company and individual systems looking for company data and individual information that erodes privacy and security. There has, therefore, been a need to protect company systems, and now individual systems, keeping them out of access from those “bad users” out on the “bad Internet.” As companies build private networks and clouds connect the Internet, network security becomes one of the most important concerns network system administrators face. In fact, these network administrators are facing threats from two fronts: the external Internet and the internal users within the company network. Thus, system administrators must be able to find ways to restrict access to the company network or sections of the network from both the “bad Internet” outside and from unscrupulous inside users. Such security mechanisms are based on a firewall. A firewall is a hardware, software, or a combination of both that monitors and filters traffic packets that attempt to either enter or leave the protected private network. It is a tool that separates a protected network or part of a network, and now increasingly a user device from an unprotected network—the “bad network” such as the Internet. In many cases, the “bad network” may even be part of the company network. By definition, a “firewall” is a tool that provides a filter of both incoming and outgoing packets. The chapter focus on the firewall and its role in network security.
Joseph Migga Kizza

13. System Intrusion Detection and Prevention

Abstract
Psychologically there is value attached to ownership of an asset. How much is spent on protecting the asset determines the value of the asset. Once a resource has been judged to have value, no matter how much protection given to it, there is always a potential that the security provided for the resource will, at some point, fail. This notion has driven the concept of system security and defined the disciplines of computer and computer network security. Computer network security is made up of three principles: prevention, detection, and response. Although these three are fundamental ingredients of security, most resources have been devoted to detection and prevention because if we are able to detect all security threats and prevent them, then there is no need for a response. Intrusion detection is a technique of detecting unauthorized access to a computer system or a computer network. An intrusion into a system is an attempt by an outsider to illegally gain access to the system. Intrusion prevention, on the other hand, is the art of preventing unauthorized access of a system’s resources. The two processes are related in a sense that while intrusion detection passively detects system intrusions, intrusion prevention actively filters network traffic to prevent intrusion attempts. This chapter focuses on these issues.
Joseph Migga Kizza

14. Computer and Network Forensics

Abstract
This chapter discusses what constitutes digital evidence, the collection and analysis of digital evidence, the chain of custody, the writing of the report, and the possible appearance in court as an expert witness. There is an in-depth discussion of the digital evidence acquisition rule of thumb and the candidates for evidence extraction. On preserving of evidence, extra care must be taken in preserving digital evidence since digital evidence is very fluid, in that it can disappear or change so fast. The chapter discusses the various techniques to preserve evidence and what needs to be done if evidence is to be moved. Emphasis is given on the importance of careful analysis of digital evidence noting that this process is the most difficult and most opinionated. It is also the most important, most time-consuming, and painstakingly slow and should be thorough so that it can support or reject a fact based on identified patterns of activities, file signature anomalies, unusual behaviors, file transfers, and several other trends in the evidence. Final issues discussed in this chapter include the process of report writing and presentation and also the ethical implications and responsibilities of both the investigator and the lawyer.
Joseph Migga Kizza

15. Virus and Content Filtering

Abstract
As the size of global computer networks expands and the use of the Internet skyrockets, security issues manifest themselves not only in the security of computer networks but also in individual user security on individual devices connected to the Internet either via an organization’s gateway or an Internet Service Provider (ISP). The security of every user, therefore, is paramount whether the user is a member of an organization network or a user of a connected device. In either case, the effort is focused on protecting not only the data but also the user. The most effective way to protect such a user and the data is through content filtering. Content filtering is a process of removing unwanted, objectionable, and harmful content before it enters the user network or the user device. The filtering process can be located in several locations, including on a user’s device, on a server within an organization, as a service provided by an ISP, or by means of a third-party site that provides the basis of a closed community. This chapter discusses these issues.
Joseph Migga Kizza

16. Standardization and Security Criteria: Security Evaluation of Computer Products

Abstract
Our growing dependence on technology and the corresponding skyrocketing security problems arising from it have all created a high demand for comprehensive security mechanisms and best practices to mitigate these security problems. Solutions on two fronts are sought for. First, well-implemented mechanisms and best practices are needed for fundamental security issues such as cryptography, authentication, access control, and audit. Second, comprehensive security mechanisms are also needed for all security products so that consumers are assured of products and systems that meet their business security needs. The response to this high demand for security products has been an avalanche of products of all types, capabilities, varying price range, effectiveness, and quality. As the market place for security products becomes saturated, competing product vendors and manufacturers make all sorts of claims about their products in order to gain a market niche. In this kind of environment then, how can a customer shop for the right secure product, what security measures should be used, and how does one evaluate the security claims made by the vendors? Along the way, choosing a good effective security product for your system or business has become a new security problem. This chapter focuses on two processes: standardization and security evaluation of products.
Joseph Migga Kizza

17. Computer Network Security Protocols

Abstract
The rapid growth of the Internet and corresponding Internet community has fuelled the rapid growth of both individual and business communications leading to the growth of all types of online communication. The direct result of this has been the growing concern and sometimes demand for security and privacy in electronic communication and e-commerce. Security and privacy are essential if individual communication is to continue and e-commerce is to thrive in cyberspace. The call for and desire for security and privacy has led to the advent of several proposals for security protocols and standards. Among these are Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocols, secure IP (IPSec), Secure HTTP (S-HTTP), secure E-mail (PGP and S/MIME), DNDSEC, SSH, and others. This chapter focuses on these.
Joseph Migga Kizza

18. Security in Wireless Networks and Devices

Abstract
Wireless technology is a relatively new technology that started in 1946. The rapid technological developments of the last 20 years have seen wireless technology as one of the fastest developing technologies in the communication industry. Because of its ability and potential to make us perform tasks while on the go and bring communication in areas where it would be impossible with the traditional wired communication, wireless technology has been embraced by millions. There are varying predictions, all pointing to the phenomenal growth of the wireless technology and industry. To meet these demands and expectations, comprehensive communication infrastructure based on several types of wireless network technologies have been developed, all based on the IEEE standards. This chapter discusses these technologies and looks at the security threats posed by these technologies to the broader communication networks.
Joseph Migga Kizza

19. Security in Sensor Networks

Abstract
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) or just sensor networks are grids or networks made of spatially distributed autonomous but cooperating tiny devices called sensors all of which have sensing capabilities that are used to detect, monitor, and track physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants, at different locations. The network may consist of just a few or thousands of tiny, mostly immobile, usually, randomly deployed nodes, covering a small or large geographical area. In many cases, sensor networks do not require predetermined positioning when they are randomly deployed, making them viable for inaccessible terrains where they can quickly self-organize and form a network on the fly. Although the use of sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions is not new, recent advances have opened up the potential for WSN. Wireless sensor networks could advance many scientific pursuits while providing a vehicle for enhancing various forms of productivity, including manufacturing, agriculture, construction, and transportation. In the military, they are good for command and control, intelligence, and surveillance. WSNs have evolved into point-to-point networks with simple interface protocols providing for sensing and control information and analog signal providing a single dimension of measurement to the current large number and sophisticated wireless sensor nodes networks. Currently, there is a whole spectrum of different sensor network protocols for the many different types of sensor networks in use today. This chapter looks at this phenomenal growth of WSNs, the role they play in the growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) technology, and the overall global communication network with a focus on security.
Joseph Migga Kizza

20. Other Efforts to Secure Data in Computer Networks and Beyond

Abstract
The rapid development of sprawling global networks has made the generation, collection, processing, indexing, and storage of information easy. A massive amount of information is created, processed, and moved around on a daily basis. The value of information has sky-rocketed and information has all of a sudden become a valuable asset for individuals, businesses, and nations. The privacy of individuals, security of personal, corporations, and national data have come to depend on distributed computer networks running a multitude of security protocols that are collectively becoming impossible to defend. Our own individual privacy and security have come to depend on the whims of the kid next door. Protection of information, on which we have come to depend so much, has been a major challenge since the birth of the Internet. The widespread adoption of computer technology for business, organization, and government operations has made the problem of protecting critical personal, business, and national assets more urgent. When these assets are attacked, damaged, or threatened, our own individual, business, and more importantly national security is at stake. The problem of protecting these assets is becoming a personal, business, and national priority that must involve everyone. Efforts and ways must be sought to this end. However, getting this massive public involvement will require massive public efforts on several fronts, including legislation, regulation, education, and activism. This chapter focuses on alternative and collective efforts that must be explored.
Joseph Migga Kizza

The Emergence of the Digital and Social Network Ecosystem

Frontmatter

21. Virtualization Technology and Security

Abstract
This chapter discusses the new developments and consequences of the virtualization technology and its implications on our participation and how the technology informs our behavior based on our traditional moral and ethical values. In a more detailed way, we define virtualization as a process which embodies both abstraction and reconstruction and as it creates a sense of complete participants’ immersion yet with the autonomy of participants to vary their chosen new environments to suit individual likings. As defined, virtualization, therefore, conjures uncertainty and fear not of the environment but of the individual who partakes in the activities of the environment. Our discussion of both social and ethical issues that arise within and outside the environment focused on two types of virtualization: computing resources virtualization and virtual reality (VR). We note that virtualization is also bringing about the easy creation of new human identities in the new virtual environments, making authentication more difficult but, at the same time, creating unprecedented potential in self-creation and self-presentation. We note, however, that while these benefits may bring new opportunities and new potential that may empower individuals to new levels of creativity, these unparalleled opportunities of virtualization may come at a price to society.
Joseph Migga Kizza

22. Cloud Computing Technology and Security

Abstract
Cloud computing is a technology extending the realms of a computer network creating an environment that offers scalability, better utilization of hardware, on-demand applications and storage, and lower costs over the long run through the creation of virtual servers cloned from existing instances each offering a near instantaneous increase in performance, allowing companies to react quickly and dynamically to emerging demands. The “cloud” or “cloud solution”, as the technology is commonly referred to, can either be hosted on-site by the company or off-site. Cloud computing technology consists of and rests on a number of sound, fundamental and proven technologies, including virtualization, service-oriented architectures, distributed computing, grid computing, broadband networks, software as a service, browser as a platform, free and open source software, autonomic systems, web application frameworks, and service level agreements. We will discuss many of these technologies in depth in this chapter.
Joseph Migga Kizza

23. Mobile Systems and Corresponding Intractable Security Issues

Abstract
A mobile communication systems consists of two or more of the following devices, running specifically developed software to sustain, for a period of time, a wireless communication link between them: mobile telephone, broadly construed here to include devices based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), and Wireless Personal Digital Assistants (WPDA) digital technologies and follow-ons, as well as satellite telephones and email appliances. Mobile communication systems are revolutionizing the world today, shrinking the world to between two or more small handheld mobile devices. The rapid changes in communication technologies, revolutionary changes in software and the growth of large powerful communication network technologies all have eased communication and brought it to large swaths of the globe. The high-end competition between the mobile telecommunication operators, resulting in plummeting device prices, the quickly developing smartphone technology, and the growing number of undersea cables and cheaper satellite technologies are bringing Internet access to almost every one of the global rural poor faster than many had anticipated. In this chapter, we put together all these communication devices and the protocols and associated technologies to create a vibrant new environment with a focus on security in this environment.
Joseph Migga Kizza

24. Internet of Things (IoT): Growth, Challenges, and Security

Abstract
The concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) was initially proposed by Kevin Ashton, who, in 1998, connected a radio microchip out of a credit card and stuck it on a lipstick shade to see if the wireless network could pick up data on the card and tell him what shelf in the store the lipstick was on. Since then, his simple idea and experiment have been extended to support pervasive connectivity and the integration of a variety of objects big and small creating an ecosystem of interconnected communication networks, whose devices or communication nodes are everyday electronic objects such as mobile devices, entertainment devices in your home, fridges and temperature control devices, garage door openers, and clothes and dishwashers. When network connectivity is achieved, it allows all these devices to talk to each other by sending and receiving data. This smart environment is achieved by seamless ubiquitous sensing, data analytics, and information representation with Cloud computing as the unifying framework. The environment allows for virtually endless opportunities and connections to take place, many of which we cannot even think of or fully understand the impact of. It is not hard to see how and why the IoT certainly opens the door to a lot of opportunities but also to many challenges. Security is a big issue that is oftentimes brought up. With billions of devices being connected together, what can people do to make sure that their information stays secure? The IoT also opens up companies all over the world to more security threats. Then we have the issue of privacy and data sharing. This chapter focuses on all these hot issues.
Joseph Migga Kizza

25. Blockchains, Cryptocurrency, and Smart Contracts Technology: Security Considerations

Abstract
Blockchain was originally block chain, a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked data blocks and secured using cryptography. Today’s block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, a timestamp, and transaction data, and it is represented as a Merkle tree. Transaction data consists of transactions. The data from each block hashes into a unique cryptographic number—a hash—as it links onto the next block. The unique number or hash makes each block on the blockchain immutable. This means a block of data on the blockchain can never be changed again. Thus, blockchains are inherently resistant to modification of the data. The blockchain is stored in a distributed peer-to-peer network of servers, and any transaction, between any two or more parties, that uses the data in any of these blocks must be approved by a majority of all network servers using efficiently verifiable protocols. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks, which requires collusion of the network majority. This last feature of decentralized consensus, possessed by the blockchain technology, gives it broad appeal in a variety of areas requiring recording of events such as medical records, all types of records management activities, such as identity management, transaction processing, documenting provenance, food traceability or voting . In this chapter, we discuss all these applications, security issues, and the future of blockchain technology.
Joseph Migga Kizza

Securing the Last Frontiers – The Home Front

Frontmatter

26. Conquering the Last Frontier in the Digital Invasion: The Home Front

Abstract
As digital technology conquers new territory, and there is ubiquitous use of technology, the last frontier has fallen in the digital invasion, and the digital activity hubs have come home. While all these activities and the silent digital crusade was going on, the clear demarcation between the home and the workplace disappeared. The workplace was a place of production, of making a living, of discovery, and of personal development. The home, on the other hand was a place of sanity, serenity, rest, and personal entertainment. The kind of technology that entered the homefront was originally designed to be small. Instead of becoming small like their production technologies, these homebound technologies became big to enhance realism in entertainment.
The smartness and intelligence of digital devices, whether big or small, started to create a kind of relationship and courtship between the two divergent technologies. The marriage took place without fanfare, and the home front will never be the same. It has become, in addition to entertainment, a production front.
More and more people are now working from home for convenience or otherwise. Employers are finding benefits from some kinds of employees working from home. More and more professions are discovering that working from home is more beneficial and profitable than the workplace outside the home. There is now a growing list of production activities that are better done at home. In this chapter, we focus on a list of problems resulting from this marriage.
Joseph Migga Kizza

Hands-On Projects

Frontmatter

27. Projects

Abstract
This is a special chapter dealing with security projects. We have arranged the projects in four parts. Part 1 consists of current case study projects from two successful National Science Foundation (NSF) funded workshops at the author’s university. Part 2 consists of projects that can be done on a weekly or biweekly basis. Part 3 consists of projects that can be done in a group or individually on a semi-semester or on a semester basis. Projects in Part 4 may demand a great deal of work and may require extensive research to be done. Some of the projects in this part may fulfill a Master’s or even Ph.D. degree project requirements. We have tried as much as possible throughout these projects to encourage instructors and students to use open source as much as possible. This will decouple the content of the Guide from the rapidly changing proprietary software market.
Joseph Migga Kizza
Additional information