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About this book

Gain the practical knowledge you need to plan, design, deploy, and manage mixed cloud and on-premises IT management systems. Drawing on his experience as senior principal software architect at CA Technologies, Marvin Waschke lays out the nuts and bolts of the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)—the 5-volume bible of standard IT service management practices that is the single most important tool for aligning IT services with business needs.

Many enterprise IT management applications, and the ways they are integrated, come directly from ITIL service management requirements. Types of integration include integrated reporting and dashboards, event-driven integration, device integration, and application data integration. Enterprise integration depends critically on high performance, scalability, and flexibility. Failure to integrate applications to service management requirements results in such wryly anticipated spectacles as the annual crash of the websites of Super Bowl advertisers such as Coca-Cola and Acura.

Waschke weighs in on the debate between those who advocate integrating "best-of-breed" applications and those who favor a pre-integrated set of applications from a single vendor. He also rates the strengths and weaknesses of the major architectural patterns—central relational databases, service-oriented architecture (SOA), and enterprise data buses—for IT integration of service management applications. He examines the modifications to traditional service management that are required by virtualized systems of datacenter management and application design.

Clouds present special problems for integration. How Clouds Hold IT Together details solutions for integration problems in private, community, and public clouds—especially problems with multi-tenant SaaS applications. Most enterprises are migrating to the cloud gradually rather than at one go. The transitional phase of mixed cloud and on-premises applications presents thorny problems for IT management. Waschke shows the reader how to normalize the performance and capacity measurements of concurrent traditional and cloud resources.

Table of Contents

Services, Virtualization, Handhelds, and Clouds

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. The Imperative

The Challenge of the Information Age and IT
Abstract
There is debate among economists and skeptics from other disciplines on the significance of the Information Age. For the last fifty years, Moore’s law has accurately predicted the exponential growth of computing capacity. If exponential growth continues, exceedingly rapid growth will occur at some point, but when the curve will become steep is hard to predict. IT has seen rapid growth in the first decade of the twenty-first century. The rate of change seems to be increasing and IT is penetrating into lives in ways that were impossible a few years ago. IT may have reached escape velocity. Service-orientation, cloud, and IT integration are critical in harnessing the blast of new capacity.
Marvin Waschke

Chapter 2. The Merger

Enterprise Business and IT Management
Abstract
Business and IT are two distinct disciplines. In most enterprises, they are also interdependent but not necessarily cooperative. Cloud service management decisions need both business and technical input to be made wisely. Cloud utility computing is a significant change to the way IT works. A thorough understanding of what utilities are and how they work is required by both business and IT because they influence many decisions. The development of electrical and other utilities is frequently compared to the development of utility computing. Their similarities and differences help explain the value and difficulty of cloud computing.
Marvin Waschke

Chapter 3. The Bridge

Service Management
Abstract
Service management as a discipline grew out of efforts to improve manufacturing quality and efficiency in the mid-twentieth century. These efforts lead to recognition of IT as a collection of services that could be planned, implemented, studied, and adjusted in the manner of a production line in a factory. ITIL is a set of practices for following this pattern. Service strategy is the first phase in the ITIL service management plan, in which enterprise goals and requirements shape a high-level plan for IT services.
Marvin Waschke

Chapter 4. The Buzz

Mobile Devices in the Workplace
Abstract
Handheld mobile devices present new challenges to the enterprise architect. Many of the popular apps installed on mobile apps are based on cloud implementations. Much of the buzz surrounding mobile devices comes from the synergy between cloud and mobile. Cloud has contributed greatly to the popularity of mobile devices. Conversely, mobile devices drive cloud innovation and support for mobile apps can be the motivation behind cloud implementations.
Marvin Waschke

Chapter 5. The Hard Part

Clouds
Abstract
For a business or other organization, deciding to use a cloud implementation and then choosing a cloud service model and how the cloud will be deployed are difficult problems. The decision depends on the role of the cloud service within the organization and the relationship between the cloud consumer and provider and the service provided. The decision is financial, managerial, and technical. It requires an understanding of what a cloud is, the benefits from cloud deployments, and the risks and obstacles to a successful deployment. And it requires an understanding of the unique requirements of managing a service deployed on a cloud.
Marvin Waschke

Service Management

Frontmatter

Chapter 6. The Foundation

ITIL and Service Management
Abstract
Cloud deployments combine management innovation and technical innovation. They require network bandwidth and connectivity, software that will support flexible and scalable remote operation, and hardware designed for cloud datacenters. Cloud success depends on both technology and management to achieve its goals of technical efficiency and capacity as well as opening new potential for IT-based business. From the view of service management, cloud deployments and even private clouds are form of outsourcings. Clouds must be managed like outsourced services. ITIL guidance on outsourcing applies to clouds. Cloud deployments also require increased cooperation between technical and business specialists in several areas. Cloud deployments, especially SaaS deployments, have generated requirements for rapid incremental releases and have driven evolving software development methodologies that fit well with ITIL continual service improvement.
Marvin Waschke

Chapter 7. The Edifice

Service Management Architecture
Abstract
This chapter describes two types of service management applications. The first type is an application that follows the source, collector, interpreter, and display architectural design pattern. A service knowledge management system (SKMS) is used as a detailed example. Most service management applications follow this pattern. The other type described is a policy or business process management application. This also follows the source, collector, interpreter, and display pattern, but it also has more complicated transactions that may require more complex interfaces. Cloud implementations both benefit and challenge implementations of both types.
Marvin Waschke

Enterprise Integration

Frontmatter

Chapter 8. The Harder They Fall

Integration in the Enterprise
Abstract
As businesses grow, their IT system grows in three ways: the transaction volume increases as the business expands, the system becomes more geographically dispersed as the business enters new markets, and the system increases in complexity as additional processes are automated. Each of these aspects of growth involves many components and relationships in the IT system, and cloud implementations play an important role.
Marvin Waschke

Chapter 9. The Contenders

Enterprise Integration Architectural Patterns
Abstract
This chapter is called “The Contenders” because it describes enterprise integration that does not rely on a cloud implementation. An enterprise that has chosen not to pursue cloud implementations can use the patterns and architectures described here. On the other hand, the patterns of this chapter are frequently used in cloud implementations, although modifications are sometimes needed.
Marvin Waschke

Virtualization

Frontmatter

Chapter 10. Not in Kansas

Virtualization Challenges
Abstract
Virtualization is a computer technology with a long history that has bloomed in recent years. Originally developed to support multitasking on mainframes, virtualization is the foundation for cloud computing today and contributes to the flexibility, reliability, and ease of use of computing today. Before the technology could become as common as it is now, it had to be applied to the workhorse of distributed computing, the x86 architecture. When that was accomplished, virtual systems spread rapidly in datacenters around the world and led to the next phase: cloud computing.
Marvin Waschke

Chapter 11. Splendid Isolation

Virtual Architecture in Practice
Abstract
Virtualization separates hardware from software. The opportunities presented by this separation are startling. Long ago, engineers conceived virtualization as a tool for supporting multiple users on a single computer. A side effect of this separation was the possibility of providing significantly different and separate environments for each user. Eventually, virtualization came to support a rich environment for entire ecosystems of applications and services and became the foundation for cloud computing.
Marvin Waschke

Clouds

Frontmatter

Chapter 12. Slipping the Surly Bonds

Cloud Architecture Practices
Abstract
Cloud implementation is not easy. The hype says moving implementations from the premises to a remote cloud is an instant cure for many IT ills. The hype is true, but only for some implementers. Frequently, the problem is a basic misunderstanding of the nature of cloud implementation. It is both a business pattern and a technology. Cloud computing opens up business possibilities and new combinations and scales of technology, but unless business and technology work together, the results will most likely be disappointing. In addition, cloud computing is best when it supports whole systems of services. A service can be implemented on a cloud independently, but usually the greatest benefits will not be realized until several services work in a synergistic cloud implementation. Strategic planning, as ITIL best practices advocate, promotes long-term cooperative strategizing, which can help guarantee cloud success.
Marvin Waschke

Chapter 13. Tricky Business

Cloud Implementation Practices
Abstract
This chapter is about the technical side of cloud applications. It discusses implementing applications and services that are to be deployed on clouds. The chapter emphasizes Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) implementations, although much of the material applies also to Platform as a Service (PaaS) implementations. The approach is high-level, discussing architecture rather than code strategies. The strategies also apply to building Software as a Service (SaaS) applications for cloud deployment but not specific strategies, such as multitenancy, for SaaS. In addition, public clouds are assumed. Private and community implementers will also benefit from the material here, although their implementations may be somewhat simpler.
Marvin Waschke

Chapter 14. Fish nor Fowl

Mixed Architectures
Abstract
The most realistic scenario in large enterprises is a mixture of legacy on-premises applications, cloud IaaS or PaaS applications, and SaaS applications. All these applications are likely to need some level of integration with the rest.
Marvin Waschke

Chapter 15. Conclusion

Cloud Practices
Abstract
Cloud computing is a revolution, a revolution built on high-speed, high-capacity global networks for communication and virtualization technology for flexibility. Network speed and capacity makes possible the separation of computing resources and resource consumers. Virtualization provides the flexibility to offer consumers the exact computing capacity they need within protected boundaries on shared hardware.
Marvin Waschke
Additional information