2016 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

# 2. Computing in Early Civilizations

Published in:
Introduction to the History of Computing

## Abstract

This chapter considers the contributions of early civilizations to the computing field, including the achievements of the Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, and the Islamic world. The Babylonian civilization flourished in Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq) from about 2000 B.C. until about 300 B.C., and they made important contributions to mathematics. The Egyptian civilization developed along the Nile from about 4000 B.C., and their knowledge of mathematics allowed them to construct the pyramids at Giza as well as other impressive monuments. The Greeks made major contributions to Western civilization including mathematics, logic and philosophy. The golden age of Islamic civilization was from 750 A.D. to 1250 A.D., and during this period enlightened caliphs recognized the value of knowledge and sponsored scholars to come to Baghdad to gather and translate the existing world knowledge into Arabic.