Democracy is a way of making decisions collectively and establishing rules and policies through popular decision-making. It is a form of government over which the people exercise control and which operates in the people’s interest. Democratic citizenship is inclusive and political institutions aim to translate citizen preferences into policy. In spite of globalization helping to cement the view that there is a need for democratic global governance, democracy still remains resolutely tied to the national polity. Creating and maintaining democracy requires both an active state to regulate society and organize the distribution of public goods, including welfare programmes, and participatory and critical civil society organizations. As a result, this book has suggested that democratization can best be understood as the introduction and extension of citizenship rights, alongside the creation of a democratic state. Democratic consolidation comprises the routinization and deepening of these practices. Moreover, analysis has increasingly focused not only on the extent to which democratization occurs and becomes embedded, but, crucially, on the quality and nature of democracy which consequently results from these complex and multifaceted processes.
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Matthew Louis Bishop
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