The history of the Yugoslav wars cannot be detached from the collapse of Yugoslav socialism as an economic and political system. The crises that affected ever more dimensions of society by the mid-1980s created new opportunities for individuals and interest-groups to attempt radical transformations of the federation. By 1989, new Party leaders in Serbia and Slovenia had two fundamentally-incompatible programmes: Milošević’s programme to recentralize the federation around Serbia at the expense of other republics’ and provinces’ autonomy, and Kučan’s programme to decrease federal control so that republics could pursue more independent courses. In terms of how Milošević and Kučan communicated with the publics they addressed, and even how they played on nationalism in doing so, the programmes were comparable; they differed, however, in the level of military force available to them and the ways in which they were prepared to use it.
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