This survey has considered theoretical approaches to warfare during the period 300–1500, the personnel involved in war — how armies were recruited and who served in them — fortifications and other buildings used in warfare, equipment used by warriors, and how war was fought by land and sea. Overall, it is clear that some aspects of war remain constant. In the period covered by this study, commanders concentrated on raiding and devastation of the enemy’s land rather than pitched battles. Throughout the period, there were sieges of strongpoints, although the quality of siege artillery varied. Those who had ships at their disposal used them for both trading and raiding. Throughout the period, armies consisted of warriors on horseback, supported by warriors on foot. Highly mobile raiding bands did not always include the warriors on foot; in areas such as Frisia where the landscape was not easily passable for horses, armies generally lacked warriors on horseback. In areas of rough terrain such as Ireland and the west and north of the British Isles, mounted warriors generally dismounted to fight. Nevertheless, the overall pattern remained.
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