At the beginning of this book we noted that it is something of a challenge to try to analyse various forms of migration across the 27 EU member states and account for the growing role that EU law and policy now plays. To undertake this task we needed to think seriously about the shape, scope and dynamics of the EU system and the types and forms of interaction that now occur within it. We established an analytical framework that focused on variation by migration type because we thought that this left us best placed to consider the ways in which power and authority were distributed across levels of governance in the EU system. We also developed a framework that sought to develop a non-linear approach to the policy process through which we specified the importance of looking across the policy process at ‘talk’, ‘decision’ and ‘action’ while leaving scope for deliberate malintegration or other inconsistencies whereby policymakers may say one thing and do another as they seek to appease competing — perhaps even contradictory — interests. This meant that we were sceptical about aggregate and undifferentiated notions of policy failure that didn’t look at the more complex structures of winners and losers, costs and benefits within the process. We were particularly sceptical about extrapolating from the outcome of process to ascribe failure without actually looking closely at the nature of the process.
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