Though accountability and transparency demands on public managers vary widely across jurisdictions and agencies, some general trends have emerged in the OECD nations in recent decades. One is the greater exposure of public managers to direct public scrutiny. Traditional models relied heavily on hierarchical authority, leaving political leaders as the sole or main spokespeople for government actions. This convention is still well entrenched, particularly in mainline departments under direct political control, but even there it is weakening in the face of more open public access to government officials.
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