I turn finally to Hardy’s last novels, The Woodlanders, Tess of the D’Urbervilles, and Jude the Obscure. I reflect on what speaks without speaking, attesting to unwritten history and shared memory. I consider that which would remain otherwise, without witness and without voice. And, I explore, again, what is lost in translation when phenomena pass beyond living memory, or when the modern subject fails to read, or reads incorrectly. As what is to come will make clear, Hardy’s worlds are expressed through phantasmal manifestations from within the real, and voices belonging to such projections. Such voices are not simply those of humans, but belong to actions, places, and all manner of inanimate phenomena. In turning to specific manifestations and articulations, I intend to revisit particular themes that have been addressed elsewhere.
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