Forces affecting organizations rarely unfold in predictable and manageable ways. It is, therefore, difficult to plan for change without having some idea about the forces that push and those that hinder change. This chapter presents an overview of the work of Kurt Lewin (1951), with an emphasis on force-field analysis and action research. Both topics are rooted in Lewin’s (1951) theorizing of the field concept applied to change management. Force-field analysis involves people working individually or collectively to engage in problem-solving in an effort to understand the magnitude and direction of forces – both positive and negative. We will emphasize that force-field analysis could be used as a springboard that sets the group for a working process by which individuals at more than one level are enabled to share their views of the promoting and resisting forces. Action research involves treating theory and problems as inseparable elements in exploring a change situation. The process is iterative, having the aim of resolving the problem as well as the development of new concepts. In so doing, ‘research on action can and will become research in action’ (Snyder, 2009: 239, emphasis added).
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