Constructivist approaches to European integration emerged at the end of the 1990s. Initially developed in the disciplines of sociology and anthropology, constructivist approaches defend the idea that ‘reality is socially constructed and that the sociology of knowledge must analyse the processes within which this occurs’ (Berger and Luckmann 1966: 1). Constructivism concentrates on the question of how ideational factors (world-views, ideas, collective understandings, norms, values, cognitive schemes, etc.) dominate political action. In other words, how do norms shape political outcomes?
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