The expeditions from western Europe to recover Jerusalem between 1188 and 1192 reforged the ideology and practice of crusading, casting the past in a new light and the future in new directions. Failure to achieve their ultimate goal ensured that subsidium Terrae sanctae — assistance for the Holy Land — remained prominent in contemporary religious and political rhetoric. Diverse mechanisms of thought, organization and action coalesced into recognizable patterns of belief, argument, aspiration and strategy sustained by distinctive legal, ritual and liturgical customs. Funding, recruitment and preaching developed in ways that flowed from the exigencies and experiences of the 1190s rather than the 1090s: clerical taxation; vow redemptions; armies paid by central funds; the use of sea transport; central control of regional preaching campaigns. Built on the disparate practices and habits of the previous century, crusading was fashioned to suit changing religious, ecclesiastical and political objectives.
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