Skip to main content

About this book

This classic and well-respected textbook provides the most comprehensive coverage of the process of design for structural elements and features a wealth of practical problems and real-world examples. It introduces readers to the design requirements of the Eurocodes for the four most commonly used materials in construction: concrete, steel, timber and masonry, and illustrates the concepts and calculations necessary for the design of the most frequently encountered basic structural elements. It includes a detailed section on structural analysis.

The scope of this text is wide, and its numerous examples, problems and easy-to-follow diagrams make it an ideal course text.

This user-friendly text is an indispensable resource both for undergraduates in all years of civil engineering and structural engineering, in construction and architecture, and for practising engineers looking to refresh their knowledge.

Table of Contents

1. Structural Analysis Techniques

The following résumé gives a brief summary of the most common manual techniques adopted to determine the forces induced in the members of statically determinate structures. There are numerous structural analysis books available which give comprehensive detailed explanations of these and other more advanced techniques, (refs. 7, 9).
William M. C. McKenzie

2. Overall Structural Stability and Robustness

In the succeeding chapters the requirements of strength, stiffness and stability of individual structural components are considered in detail. It is also essential in any structural design to consider the requirements of overall structural stability.
William M. C. McKenzie

3. Design Philosophies and the Eurocode Program

The successful completion of any structural design project is dependent on many variables. However, there are a number of fundamental objectives which must be incorporated in any design philosophy to provide a structure which, throughout its intended lifespan:
will possess an acceptable margin of safety against collapse whilst in use
is serviceable and perform its intended purpose whilst in use
is sufficiently robust such that damage to an extent disproportionate to the original cause will not occur
is economic to construct, and
is economic to maintain.
Historically, structural design was carried out on the basis of intuition, trial and error, and experience which enabled empirical design rules, generally relating to structure/member proportions, to be established. These rules were used to minimise structural failures and consequently introduced a margin-of-safety against collapse. In the latter half of the 19th century the introduction of modern materials and the development of mathematical modelling techniques led to the introduction of a design philosophy which incorporated the concept of a factor-of-safety based on known material strength, e.g. ultimate tensile stress; this is known as permissible stress design. During the 20th century two further design philosophies were developed and are referred to as load factor design and limitstate design; each of the three philosophies is discussed separately in Sections 3.2 to 3.4.
William M. C. McKenzie

4. EN 1990: Basis of Structural Design (Eurocode)

The ‘basic requirements’ of Eurocode are that all structures are required to have adequate:
  • resistance (strength) Clause 2.1(2)P,
  • serviceability Clause 2.1(2)P,
  • durability Clause 2.1(2)P and Clause 2.4,
  • fire resistance Clause 2.1(3)P,
  • robustness Clause 2.1(4)P.
Compliance with the Principles and Rules set out in the Eurocodes should ensure that these criteria are satisfied. It is presumed that ‘design and construction’ in accordance with the Eurocodes is carried out/supervised by appropriately qualified and experienced personnel. In addition EN 1990 provides the basis for:
  • structural design
  • verification
  • guidelines of reliability relating to safety, serviceability and durability for design cases not covered by EN 1991 to EN 1999, e.g. additional/new actions, materials or structures not currently included in the existing Eurocodes.
William M. C. McKenzie

5. EN 1991: Actions on Structures (Eurocode 1)

All structures are subjected to loading from various sources (Figure 5.1). The main categories of loading are: dead, imposed and wind loads. In some circumstances there may be other loading types which should be considered, such as settlement, fatigue, temperature effects, dynamic loading, or impact effects (e.g. when designing bridge decks, crane-gantry girders or maritime structures). In the majority of cases, design considering combinations of dead, imposed, snow and wind loads is the most appropriate.
William M. C. McKenzie

6. EN 1992: Design of Reinforced Concrete Elements

Concrete is a widely used structural material with applications ranging from simple elements such as fence posts and railway sleepers to major structures such as bridges, offshore oil production platforms and high-rise buildings. In essence the material is a conglomerate of chemically inert aggregates (i.e. natural sands, crushed rock etc.) bonded together by a matrix of mineral cement. The aggregates and cement are mixed together with water to create an amorphous, plastic mass, i.e. concrete. A chemical reaction between the cement and the water, known as the hydration process causes the cement to harden and the conglomerate to gain strength over a period of time.
William M. C. McKenzie

7. EN 1993: Design of Structural Steelwork Elements

The origins of modern building materials such as structural steelwork can be traced back to the birth of the Industrial Revolution in the latter part of the 18th century. The construction of the Iron Bridge (manufactured from cast iron) across the River Severn near Coalbrookdale in 1779 marked the end of an era in which timber and masonry were the dominant materials of building.
William M. C. McKenzie

8. EN 1995: Design of Timber Elements

The use of timber as a structural material probably dates back to primitive times when man used fallen trees to bridge streams and gain access to hunting grounds or new pastures. It was only during the latter half of the twentieth century that detailed knowledge regarding the physical properties and behaviour of timber has been developed on a scientific basis and subsequently used in design.
William M. C. McKenzie

9. EN 1996: Design of Masonry Elements

Despite the use of masonry for construction during many centuries, design techniques based on well-established scientific principles have only been developed during the latter part of the 20th century.
William M. C. McKenzie
Additional information