It is an a priori observation to say that without the environment there can be no development. Any capacity to develop, no matter how it is defined, must occur within the physical context and ultimate limitations of the available material circumstances, the most basic of which is the earth, its waters and its atmosphere: land to grow food on, water to drink and air to breathe. The global rush to achieve and expand material development has been predicated on the capacity of the physical environment to support it. In some cases the environment has been despoiled and in others it is simply running out of resources. Care for the environment and its use in a sustainable and affordable manner, for present and future generations, are perhaps the most critical issues in the development process (UNEP 2015: xvii). The rise in importance of the environment in developing countries has paralleled a growing awareness of such issues in developed countries and, hence, among many bilateral and multilateral aid agencies and aid organizations. While there has been much cross-communication on this issue, increasingly developing countries’ awareness of environmental issues has also come from direct experience with environmentalproblems. The growth of industrialization, often quickly and with few, if any, environmental safeguards, and populations swelling on the back of the ‘green revolution’, has had a real and substantial impact on many developing countries.
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