Despite the increasingly global nature of environmental politics, considered in Chapters 6 and 7, it still remains the case that national governments exercise a great deal of influence in environmental policy-making. Many aspects of environmental policy are not subject to international agreement and, in any case, states are still the primary actors in international negotiations. Moreover, once decisions are reached, it is national governments who have the responsibility for putting them into effect. It is rare for international conventions to stipulate that agreements must be enshrined in national law and, even in the case of the European Union, the way in which European Union directives are implemented is left to national governments. As a result, as we shall see in Chapter 9, there is still plenty of scope for environmental groups to exercise influence at the national and sub-national levels.
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- Environmental Policy-Making at the National Level
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- Chapter 8