The institutions of democracy have now become objects of policy choice. Japan and New Zealand changed their electoral systems in the 1990s. Countries in Europe have increasingly turned to referendums as ways of resolving problems, not least about the future pace and direction of European integration. In the US the close result of the presidential election in 2000 and the poor quality of electoral administration that it revealed has led to a search for improvements in practice. Political parties in many democracies have adopted procedures to make their candidate selection processes more open and representative in a statistical sense. High rates of international migration are raising questions about the conditions of membership in democratic societies and the requirements that ought to be imposed on individuals if they are to be permitted the rights of citizenship.
Swipe to navigate through the chapters of this book
Please log in to get access to this content
To get access to this content you need the following product:
- Epilogue: The Democratic Reform of Democracy
- Macmillan Education UK
- Sequence number
- Chapter number