Shortly after the twenty-first century began, on 11 September 2001, the ace of battle changed. The scope of the tragedy and number of victims of the 9/11 attacks made the rhetoric of ‘just’ war ring true from an early stage of the United States response. The terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington DC, like the attack on Pearl Harbor, meant that America was at war. But this time the enemy was elusive, not confined to a single nation or coalition of forces, not restricted to one geographic locality and not fighting in any traditional sense of combat. The combined fatalities of the attacks on the World Trade Center, Pentagon and the failed attack and subsequent plane crash in Pennsylvania claimed the lives of over 3200 civilians from over 80 countries. Commandeering commercial aircraft, full of innocent civilians, and turning them into deadly missiles took the Second World War concept of kamikaze attacks to unexpected new levels of warfare and paled in comparison to the attack on Pearl Harbor. The sea change witnessed in this attack as opposed to the four major wars of the twentieth century was that it deliberately targeted civilians. This was not a war like other wars for the United States.
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