Students are sometimes confused about conclusions. They are often told that conclusions should summarise what has been achieved in the essay. However, on the one hand, they encounter academic articles and books whose conclusions keep arguing rather than summarising. And on the other hand, they worry that if their conclusions only include a summary they will be repetitive. Both of these concerns are well founded. Nevertheless, there is a good way to go about writing conclusions and it need not be overly repetitive. Although conclusions and introductions include similar information, they emphasise different things. Introductions are concerned with introducing the question/problem to be addressed and explaining its significance, and giving a brief overview of what will be covered. Conclusions are more concerned with summarising the key arguments that have been made; this summary will be more substantial than the outline in the introduction.
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