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About this book

Designed to replace Martin Holland's The European Union and the Third World, this new text provides systematic coverage of the European Union's policies in relation to the developing world in the 21st century and includes substantial coverage of governance issues and the relationship between development initiatives and European integration.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Abstract
The study of European Union (EU) development policy presents something of a paradox. Development policy constitutes an area where the EU can rightly claim to be an international leader with significant influence shaping global agendas: and yet academic studies devoted to development policy are few, especially in comparison with the ever-expanding literature on Europe’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). This book begins to redress this imbalance by providing both a comprehensive and a contemporary analysis of EU development policy. Whilst Europe’s formal relations with the developing world are as old as the integration process itself, the shape and the content of those relations have altered significantly since the signing of the Treaty of Rome in 1957. Successive enlargements, differential rates of global development, the collapse of communist ideology in Central and Eastern Europe, the reorganization of international trade under the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO) have all contributed to reshaping the EU’s external relations with the developing world. Most recently, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the introduction of the Lisbon Treaty have begun to redefine fundamentally both Europe’s development objectives and its implementation mechanisms. This book examines these changes from both an empirical and a conceptual perspective: significantly, EU development policy is categorized as an aspect of Europe’s broader role as an emerging international actor and is addressed within the wider context of Europe’s integration process. It is argued that contemporary theories of integration provide the appropriate tools for understanding not just the EU’s internal dynamics, but its external relations as well.
Martin Holland, Mathew Doidge

Chapter 1. Theories and Concepts

Abstract
This chapter explores a range of conceptual issues that impact upon the assessment of the EU’s relationship with the developing world. The first is a recognition that the Union’s conception of development has transformed over time, reflecting the continuing evolution of, and tension between, theoretical models of development. EU development policy is in many ways a reflection of this evolution. But these external models must also be supplemented by an understanding of European integration theory, which can be used to elucidate changing priorities in the Union’s development agenda. Internal debates on the nature and functioning of the EU, coupled with the supranational-intergovernmental dynamics of integration, have played an important role in structuring external engagement, not least that with the developing world. Finally, at a more empirical level, we consider the definition of the ‘developing world’ itself. Myriad competing conceptions of what constitutes the developing world exist, creating a source of tension with the Union’s own development policy, structured as it has been by historical realities more than objective considerations.
Martin Holland, Mathew Doidge

Chapter 2. The ACP: From Yaoundé to Cotonou

Abstract
We begin this chapter by addressing two basic questions. What were the origins of the EU’s development policy? What were the motivations? These simple questions need to be examined in some detail in order to convey the context within which development policy has evolved since 1957. Many of the current debates concerning the restructuring of development policy can only be understood through such a historical perspective.
Martin Holland, Mathew Doidge

Chapter 3. Parallel Paradigms: Cotonou, Economic Partnership Agreements and Everything But Arms

Abstract
The focus of this chapter is on the post-2000 changes and challenges that EU development policy has addressed. First, the negotiation process leading to the Cotonou Agreement is outlined; second, the issues raised by the introduction of Cotonou are discussed, including the amendments made in the 2005 and 2010 review processes; third, the actual EPA implementation process up until 2010 is analysed; and fourth, the parallel policy initiative — the 2001 Everything But Arms regulation — is outlined and examined as an element of Europe’s more coherent global development approach. Given the ongoing nature of both the EPA and EBA initiatives, we seek to contextualize these policy innovations and point to any policy consequences (intended or otherwise) that may emerge during the life of Cotonou to 2020.
Martin Holland, Mathew Doidge

Chapter 4. The Changing Institutional Setting: Policy-Making, Commission Reforms, ECHO, EuropeAid and the EEAS

Abstract
In the context of EU evolution, development policy has historically been on the fringes rather than at the centre of debate. Reflecting perhaps its initial eleventh hour inclusion in the projet européen, none of the subsequent treaty reforms have taken the coherence of the Union’s development policy as their starting point. This trend continued in the Lisbon Treaty which, while directed to the enhancement of the Union’s role on the global stage, had as its focus the establishment of a single voice in CFSP, with development again somewhat of an afterthought. As a consequence of the apparent neglect, development has had to be squeezed into the policy frameworks and agenda, with institutional evolution the product largely of pragmatism than design. The consequential organizational tinkering and the impact of personalities that has been characteristic of EU development policy and practice must be read in this context.
Martin Holland, Mathew Doidge

Chapter 5. Latin America: Exporting Regionalism

Abstract
Despite the formalized relationship with the Caribbean, Latin America has always been on the fringes and marginal to Europe’s mainstream development concerns. This distance is somewhat puzzling given the cultural, religious, historical and trading ties that exist. During the European Community’s first decade Latin America was an equally important trading partner compared with Africa as a whole (and far more important than the Yaoundé states — accounting for roughly double the levels of imports and exports) (Holland 2002: 30). Many of the products that Europe sourced from Africa were available from Latin America, and supplies were arguably more secure. Further, Latin America seemed to provide a wealthier potential market for European export policy (Grilli 1993: 226–7). Why, then, the apparent neglect?
Martin Holland, Mathew Doidge

Chapter 6. Asia: From Development to Dialogue

Abstract
As with Latin America, development has been a low priority in EU relations with Asia. Rather, economic considerations have predominated — the exigencies of trade and competition have historically trumped all other issues, including development. Reflecting this, the Union’s relations with the region have primarily focused on East and South East Asia, structured largely through the frameworks of the EU-ASEAN relationship and the ASEM process. What follows is an overview of the emergence and content of these structures and the apparent recent inclusion onto the ASEM agenda of a new development focus. Finally, consideration is given to the aid dimension in EU–Asia relations, the poor cousin to the economic relationship.
Martin Holland, Mathew Doidge

Chapter 7. Complementarity and Conditionality

Abstract
Having reviewed the geographical and policy frameworks that shape EU development policy, in this chapter we address two broad conceptual issues: first, the introduction of the principle of complementarity guiding the internal organization of European policy; and second, the application of conditionality — both political and economic — in the EU’s relations with the developing world. While the commentary is intentionally generalized, much of the empirical evidence is drawn from the Lomé Conventions. To that extent Lomé has provided a reflection of the EU’s more general global approach: what was transposed in agreements with Asia or Latin America, for example, usually had their origins in the discussions previously held with the ACP. The application of Lomé — and latterly Cotonou — is also useful as they provide the most comprehensive EU perspective dealing now with 78 ACP states in total.
Martin Holland, Mathew Doidge

Chapter 8. The EU and the Global Governance Development Agenda

Abstract
As remarked elsewhere in this text, the global and European development agenda of the 1990s focused unprecedented attention on the transition economies of Eastern and Central Europe. This understandable international response to the collapse of communism and the Soviet Union had the unintended consequence of further marginalizing the traditional developing world of the South. In an attempt to redress this imbalance, by the turn of the twenty-first century the international community began to develop a new perspective that sought to address these ongoing and increasingly global inequalities. The EU was a leading voice in setting this new agenda and worked collaboratively within the UN, the World Bank, the IMF, the G8 (and more recently the G20) and international campaigns such as ‘Make Poverty History’ over the last decade. In this chapter we examine the EU’s role in this wider global governance development agenda, particular in relation to ODA commitments, untied aid, a renewed emphasis on Africa, and the UN’s MDGs. By exploring the linkages between EU development policy and that of the international community a central question is raised: is the impact of development policy enhanced by such complementarity or reduced through duplication and competition?
Martin Holland, Mathew Doidge

Chapter 9. Conclusion: Themes and Future Directions

Abstract
In this concluding chapter the conceptual link between EU development policy and the process of European integration raised in Chapter 1 is revisited. While atheoretical examinations of EU politics can still be found, increasingly the importance of integration theory has come to be recognized as the essential starting point for discussions of any EU activity. To understand the motivations and rationale behind European policies — as well as the chosen policy mechanisms — requires a theoretical framework. Often, explanations are not to be found in the more immediate issues related to a specific policy sector, but in the wider debates concerning the kind of integration process envisaged. Understandably, most examinations of Europe’s relations with the developing world have located themselves theoretically within the discourse of development studies and a brief survey of these approaches was given in Chapter 1. However, the perspective of this book has been upon the European process of establishing policies that are developmental in nature; consequently the issues pertaining to the wider integration debates are of central relevance. Simply, which of the competing approaches to integration can best explain EU development policy? We have suggested a range of concepts rather than a single theoretical framework as the more appropriate approach. As has been shown, there are clear intergovernmental policy competences involved (ODA, debt relief, EDF), a new institutionalism is evident (EBA), neo-functional spillover has occurred (EPAs, the security and development nexus), multilevel governance has shaped decision-making (the Cotonou reforms) and there is the clear expression of constructivist values and norms (MDGs, the death penalty) — all of which combine to shape the nature of EU development policy. Such policy diversity demands conceptual complementarity and not a single theoretical lens.
Martin Holland, Mathew Doidge
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