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About this book

Far from displaying a uniform pattern of integration, the European Union varies significantly across policy areas, institutional development and individual countries. Why do some policies such as the Single Market attract non-EU member states, while some member states choose to opt out of other EU policies? In answering these questions, this innovative new text provides a state-of-the-art introduction to the study of European integration.

The authors introduce the most important theories of European integration and apply these to the trajectories of key EU policy areas – including the single market, monetary policy, foreign and security policy, and justice and home affairs. Arguing that no single theory offers a completely convincing explanation of integration and differentiation in the EU, the authors put forward a new analytical perspective for describing and explaining the institutions and policies of the EU and their development over time. Written by a team of prominent scholars in the field, this thought-provoking book provides a new synthesis of integration theory and an original way of thinking about what the EU is and how it works.

Table of Contents

The European Union as a System of Differentiated Integration

Chapter 1. The European Union as a System of Differentiated Integration

Abstract
Jacques Delors, a former president of the European Commission, once called the European Union a UPO — an Unidentified Political Object. Already in the early 1970s, Donald Puchala (1971) likened students of European integration to blind men each examining a different body part of an elephant and, predictably, coming to divergent conclusions about the object of their study. Indeed, since its beginnings, scholars have debated the ‘nature of the beast’ without reaching consensus.
Dirk Leuffen, Berthold Rittberger, Frank Schimmelfennig

Theory

Frontmatter

Chapter 2. Intergovernmentalism

Abstract
The origins of intergovernmentalism are tightly linked to the first period of stagnation in European integration. In the mid-1960s, the presidency of General de Gaulle and the ‘empty chair crisis’ — France’s representatives refused to attend any intergovernmental meetings because of a conflict over the financing of the Common Agricultural Policy — appeared to mark the limits of supranational integration, and the resilience of state interests and power. It was then that Stanley Hoffmann (1966, 1982) formulated the major assumptions and expectations of intergovernmentalist integration theory. Intergovernmentalism, however, is not confined to explaining the limits of integration. Historian Alan Milward (1984, 1994; Milward and Brennan 1992) later argued that European integration had worked as an intergovernmentalist project from the very start. In his view, it was designed as the ‘rescue of the nation-state’ from the shambles of World War II, and Andrew Moravcsik’s liberal intergovernmentalism (1993, 1998) claimed to explain the new momentum of European integration in the 1980s and 1990s.
Dirk Leuffen, Berthold Rittberger, Frank Schimmelfennig

Chapter 3. Supranationalism

Abstract
Supranationalist and intergovernmentalist theories have always been the main competitors in integration theory. In the early phase of European integration, neofunctionalism and realist intergovernmentalism shaped the debate; in the 1990s, supranational institutionalism and liberal intergovernmentalism opposed each other. Whereas intergovernmentalism claims that European integration is shaped by the preferences and power of states, and remains under their control, supranationalism argues that transnational society and supranational organizations are relevant actors, too, and that the initial steps of European integration build sufficient momentum to push its functional scope, level of centralization, and territorial extension beyond the level governments had originally intended. Whereas intergovernmentalism emphasizes the continuity of European integration as a form of international organization, supranationalism stresses its transformative potential: how it grows out of the domain of international relations and develops into a new kind of polity.
Dirk Leuffen, Berthold Rittberger, Frank Schimmelfennig

Chapter 4. Constructivism

Abstract
Constructivism is a comparatively recent addition to the portfolio of theoretical approaches to European integration. A 1999 special issue of the Journal of European Public Policy signalled that something like a ‘constructivist school’ was forming in EU studies (Christiansen et al. 2001). As in the case of intergovernmentalism and supranationalism, the theory was imported from IR, where constructivism had established itself a few years earlier as the counterpart to the rationalist mainstream. Indeed, most of the early proponents of constructivism in EU studies had their academic roots in IR. Since the turn of the millennium, constructivism has firmly established itself as an approach to studying the EU but has not yet consolidated as a theory of European integration on the same level as liberal intergovernmentalism or neofunctionalism.
Dirk Leuffen, Berthold Rittberger, Frank Schimmelfennig

Policies

Frontmatter

Chapter 5. The Single Market

Abstract
In October 2010, the European Commission published a Communication with the telling title ‘Towards a Single Market Act. For a highly competitive social market economy. 50 proposals for improving our work, business and exchanges with one another’. These proposals ranged from the introduction of an EU patent, the management of copyrights, energy efficiency, the coordination of national tax policies, the recognition of professional qualifications, to the creation of a single integrated mortgage market, aimed at stimulating growth in an era of globalization and digitalization. The Commission’s communication highlights at least two important facts about the single market. First, the main ambition of the single market is to promote economic growth by increasing competition and by enabling a Europe-wide efficient allocation of resources. Second, and more important for the topic of this book, the creation of the single market remains an ongoing project. Since the signing of the Treaties of Rome in the 1950s, the Common Market, with its four freedoms, has been on the European agenda. And the reforms continue.
Dirk Leuffen, Berthold Rittberger, Frank Schimmelfennig

Chapter 6. Economic and Monetary Union

Abstract
The Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) was formally established by the Treaty on European Union, negotiated and signed in Maastricht in 1991. But plans had already been made since the late 1960s. In more abstract terms, EMU concerns the integration of macroeconomic policies. Whereas the market integration presented in Chapter 5 focuses on removing barriers to the free movement of goods, services, capital, and labour across national borders, macroeconomic policy integration refers to monetary and fiscal policies.
Dirk Leuffen, Berthold Rittberger, Frank Schimmelfennig

Chapter 7. Security and Defence

Abstract
The areas of security and defence are commonly referred to as an issue of ‘high politics’ and, as such, they are characteristic of policies that are deemed vital in determining the autonomy, integrity — and hence the survival — of nation-states (Hoffmann 1966). The development of defence capabilities and the capacity of rulers to deploy armies is a significant milestone in the history of modern statehood. War, in Charles Tilly’s words, made states and states, in turn, have waged wars to secure their position in the incipient system of national states, thereby to secure and protect their nascent and often fragile sovereignty. While war and the process of state-building are inextricably linked, international cooperation, or even integration in matters of security and defence policy, mark particularly intriguing puzzles for every student of International Relations, more generally, and European integration in particular. According to realists, the anarchical and uncertain nature of international politics offers no protection to the security and integrity of states and therefore, governments have to invest in capabilities and forge alliances to defend themselves against potential competitors.
Dirk Leuffen, Berthold Rittberger, Frank Schimmelfennig

Chapter 8. The Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

Abstract
The Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) — formerly called Justice and Home Affairs — has become one of the most dynamic fields of European integration in recent years. Hardly on the official agenda before the 1990s, it has since then experienced a rapid integration in vertical and horizontal terms. Given the ‘late-comer’ status of this policy area, followed by some dazzling dynamics, and an extraordinary amount of vertical and horizontal differentiation, this policy area poses some intriguing and challenging questions for integration theories. In this chapter, we will first outline the development over time of the AFSJ. Given the complexity and diversity of this policy area, we will then concentrate our theoretical analysis on a selection of issues and events relating to the AFSJ. A particular focus of this chapter will be on the Schengen border regime. For the purposes of this book, ‘Schengen’ is of major interest, since it can be considered a paradigmatic example of external and internal differentiation. Non-EU member states participate in it, while some EU member states have preferred not to join. The UK and Ireland have opted out of Schengen, Cyprus has not yet implemented it, and Bulgaria and Romania still have to fulfill the necessary criteria for joining the Schengen group.
Dirk Leuffen, Berthold Rittberger, Frank Schimmelfennig

Chapter 9. Conclusion: Integration and Differentiation in the European Union

Abstract
In the 1950s, the European integration project started with six European states creating a community to coordinate the production and distribution of coal and steel and, a few years later, to set up a common market. Since then the European Union has increased to include 28 member states by 2013 and to cover most areas of modern governance more or less tightly. At first, most policies were only loosely coordinated but, over time, have become progressively more communitarized by the increasing the powers of supranational actors such as the European Commission, the EP, and the ECJ, and by loosening the grip of individual member states on policy decisions. In this book, we named the two institutional dynamics that characterize the EU integration process: horizontal and vertical integration. Horizontal integration refers to the territorial extension of the EU’s policy regimes; vertical integration captures the depth or centralization of supranational decision-making in different policy areas.
Dirk Leuffen, Berthold Rittberger, Frank Schimmelfennig
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