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About this book

This book by two leading experts provides a comprehensive analysis of Turkey's relationship with the European Union, set in its regional and international context. It provides three analytical lenses through which the relationship might be understood – Turkey as an enlargement country, as an EU neighbour and as a global partner – and unpacks the implications of each.

Turkey and the European Union focuses on the five pillars that help define the relationship: economics, migration, security, democracy and human rights, and culture and identity. It shows how the differing perspectives on Turkey's role can influence events and developments in these areas, and it traces the profound fluctuations in relations, from the Association Agreement of 1963, to the candidacy for full membership of 1999, to the limbo of today.

Turkey continues to be a critically important country for the European Union. The relationship has consequences that are both ideational, embedded in history, politics, identity and culture, and material, relating to economics, energy and security. In examining this complex relationship, this book addresses a key issue for Europe's future, and does so in a fashion that is both sophisticated and accessible.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Abstract
Turkey and the EU are bound by a curious love affair. Turkey has been an integral part of Europe’s centuries-long history and has enjoyed structured relations with the European Union and its predecessor, the European Community, almost since its inception. Both Turkey and the EU have aimed at cultivating a closer relationship. The depth and breadth of the economic, societal, cultural and political connections that the two have been able to establish over the years clearly testify to this. At the same time, the precise interpretation of what the relationship is all about, and, more poignantly, where it will end up, has been highly contested within both Turkey and the European Union, as well as between the two. It is this odd mix of a shared commitment to one another and widely varying interpretations within and between both sides as to what this would actually mean, that underpins Turkey’s tortuous path to Europe.
Senem Aydın-Düzgit, Nathalie Tocci

Chapter 1. History

Abstract
Turkey and the EU have always aimed at deepening relations, yet the precise interpretation of what this would entail has been highly contested. It is this odd mix of a shared commitment to each other and widely varying interpretations within (and between) both sides as to what this should mean that explains Turkey’s tortuous path to Europe. This chapter first accounts for the ebbs and flows in Turkey’s path to Europe from the 1963 Association Agreement to the present, before turning to the factors explaining the non-linearity of the relationship, factors that lie both in Turkey and in the EU as well as in the interaction between the two.
Senem Aydın-Düzgit, Nathalie Tocci

Chapter 2. Turkey as an Enlargement Country

Abstract
The first and foremost lens through which the EU—Turkey relationship has been understood and debated over the decades is that of enlargement. This chapter first reviews the evolution of the enlargement process to Turkey and then analyses how and by whom Turkey as an aspirant EU member is discussed in Europe.
Senem Aydın-Düzgit, Nathalie Tocci

Chapter 3. Turkey as a Neighbour

Abstract
Enlargement has been the dominant, but by no means the only, lens through which Turkey has been debated in Europe, particularly over the last two decades. Regardless of whether Turkey enters the EU, it has been and will continue to be a crucially important neighbour of the EU and its member states. This chapter reviews the key and multifaceted role of Turkey as an EU neighbour, notably as a result of its relations with the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East. The chapter then moves on to discuss how Turkey’s regional role is perceived and debated by EU institutions and member states.
Senem Aydın-Düzgit, Nathalie Tocci

Chapter 4. Turkey as a Global Actor

Abstract
Turkey’s increasingly high profile as a global actor also has ramifications for its relations with the EU. While Turkey had been seeking to extend its influence to its larger neighbourhood since the end of the Cold War, it was not until the 2000s that the country experienced a substantive rise in the rigour of its global activities. This chapter first provides an overview of Turkey’s global profile since the end of the Cold War, delving into the domestic and international reasons behind its recent activism. It then outlines Turkey’s evolving relations with the major global player countries and distant regions as well as its activities in the multilateral fora. The chapter concludes with a discussion of European views on Turkey’s global role.
Senem Aydın-Düzgit, Nathalie Tocci

Chapter 5. The Economy

Abstract
Economics is critical in shaping the course and content of EU—Turkey relations. In the past, Turkey’s large but volatile economy plagued by deep structural problems was cause of considerable European concern. It was also among the principal factors that both highlighted the importance of the EU anchor for Turkey’s economic development and militated against the country’s deeper integration with the EU. It is against this backdrop that the first decades of Turkey’s economic ties with the EU can be understood, from the 1963 Association Agreement to the customs union agreement in 1996.
Senem Aydın-Düzgit, Nathalie Tocci

Chapter 6. Security

Abstract
Security is critical to EU—Turkey relations both in light of the accession process and in view of the scope for cooperation between the EU and Turkey on broader foreign policy matters. Among the most salient security issues are the different ‘security cultures’ of the EU and Turkey, the challenges to NATO—EU cooperation and Turkey’s place in the CSDP (Common Security and Defence Policy), Turkey’s general strategic orientation and its implications for European security, and Turkey’s role in the EU’s energy security map.
Senem Aydın-Düzgit, Nathalie Tocci

Chapter 7. Migration and Mobility

Abstract
Migration and mobility have become increasingly important in Turkey—EU relations over time and are expected to be among the most challenging matters to be managed in the course of Turkey’s accession. Issues include the question of irregular migrants entering the EU through Turkey — the saliency of which has been heightened by the Syrian refugee crisis since 2011 — the tensions generated by the EU’s requirement of Schengen visas for Turkish citizens, the debate on Turkish immigration into the EU post-membership, and the role, integration and assimilation of Turkish migrants into host EU member states.
Senem Aydın-Düzgit, Nathalie Tocci

Chapter 8. Democracy and Human Rights

Abstract
Democracy and human rights have been a recurrent theme in the long-standing relationship between the European Union and Turkey. More than any other issue, they have acted as a litmus test for the relationship as a whole, deeply conditioning its cyclical ups and downs over the decades. In this chapter we distil the democracy and human rights dimension of Turkey—EU relations by tackling three questions. First, how have democracy and human rights affected EU—Turkey relations? Can we explain the ebbs and flows in the relationship by mapping Turkey’s political performance? Second, why do democracy and human rights matter in EU—Turkey relations? Are democracy and human rights important when Turkey is viewed as an enlargement, neighbourhood or global country? Third, to whom do democracy and human rights matter? Who are the stakeholders in Europe that care most about democracy and human rights in Turkey and are thus most influential in conditioning the overall relationship to the state of democracy and human rights in the country?
Senem Aydın-Düzgit, Nathalie Tocci

Chapter 9. Culture and Identity

Abstract
Culture and identity are among the most controversial aspects of the EU—Turkey relationship. Religion, history and culture have very often been a central element in discussions on Turkey by EU elites and publics alike. Similarly, the Turkish political elite and public have long criticized the EU for discriminating against Turkey on the grounds of culture and identity. As the prospect of Turkish accession became more tangible with the declaration of its candidacy in 1999 and later with the opening of accession negotiations in 2005, opposition to Turkey’s accession started to be voiced increasingly on the grounds of the country’s ambiguous ‘Europeanness’, which would pose a profound challenge to the European project. Prominent politicians in the EU have argued that Turkey’s democracy, geography, history and culture qualify it as a non-European state unfit to become a member of the EU. The opposite has also been argued however: Turkey’s religious, cultural and historical identity would represent an asset to the EU, enriching its multicultural foundations and enhancing its outreach to the wider neighbourhood. At the core of this discussion is a fundamental intra-European divide over the meaning of European culture and identity.
Senem Aydın-Düzgit, Nathalie Tocci

Chapter 10. Conclusions

Abstract
Turkey has always been, and will likely remain one of the most important countries for the European Union. It stands on a par with Russia in the neighbourhood, and, arguably, is as significant for the EU as such major global powers as the United States and China. Over the centuries, relations between Turkey and Europe were characterized by cooperation — for instance the deep economic and societal exchanges between the Ottoman Empire and the Italian city state of Venice in the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries — as well as conflict — notably the Ottoman—Habsburg wars until the eighteenth century. These deep historical ties have formed the bedrock of equally deep political, economic, societal, cultural and military connections between Turkey and Europe in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.
Senem Aydın-Düzgit, Nathalie Tocci
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