The Conservative victory in the May 2015 General Election means that a referendum on our future membership in the EU is now certain, by 2017 at the latest. The British have long been the most Eurosceptic people among the big member states of the European Union (EU). The UKs growing integration into the EU over the decades following the original accession in 1973 was due to elite consensus. Even the most Eurosceptic of Prime Ministers, Margaret Thatcher, put onto the statute book in 1986 the Single European Act - the most important measure of European integration since the signature of the founding Treaty of Rome in 1957. It did seem for over thirty years after the UKs accession that the question of Britain: in or out? had been settled in favour not only of membership but also of increased integration in a federal Europe. As this chapter will show that is no longer the case. Division over whether we should remain in membership, over whether we should confirm or end membership with a referendum, over whether if we remain in membership we should have some looser association than hitherto - all these have become central to British politics, including electoral politics, since the beginning of the millennium. They became even more central during the tenure of the coalition government after 2010 and a major theme of the 2015 general election campaign.
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