A theory of development has to address several interdependent issues:
the implications of structural change in LDCs rather than incremental change in DCs
the demand for progressive change based on open systems and equal rights, and not just for change itself
the relationship between conscious management and the spontaneous operation of market forces
the need for processes and incentives that might persuade major social groups committed to different systems to recognize the need to change their institutions and in so doing solve the problems involved in emancipatory social transformations.
We also saw in Chapter 1 that:
methodological positivists and individualists deny the possibility of value-driven theory and managed social change
cultural relativists reject its implicit or explicit demand for a shift to western institutions
corporatists and Communists are committed to systems based on centralized controls rather than free political and economic markets.
We can only reconstruct the development project by addressing these conflicting claims, since they seem to involve
systematic and apparently ineliminable disagreements between the protagonists of rival moral points of view, each of whom claims rational justification for their own standpoint and none of whom seems able — except by their own standards — to rebut the claims of their rivals. (Maclntyre, 1998: 2002)