Education systems are a product of the unique character of national decision and policymaking. The national education policy establishes the main goals and priorities pursued by the government in matters of education – at the sector and sub-sector levels – and focuses on specific aspects such as access, quality and teachers, or to a given issue or need. An education policy strategy specifies how the policy goals are to be achieved. An education policy plan defines the targets, activities to be implemented and the timeline, responsibilities and resources needed to realize the policy and strategy (UNESCO, 2013). Although policymakers may attempt to steer and manipulate the education system, often as an entity in itself, the effectiveness of education is determined by wider social structures. Such structures are preconditions for agency and can be seen as a combination of such factors as social class; castes; ethnic, linguistic and religious division; and socially deprived, marginalized and vulnerable populations. These social groups often display different attitudes and values towards the utility of education, its priorities and the way in which it is delivered. This is often the main dilemma in many countries: the value of education, and in particular the value of higher education (HE), is not always so obvious.
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