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About this book

Work-based learning routes are a versatile and innovative way to gain higher education qualifications. This book reflects that flexibility and prepares tutors for helping work-based students learn in a variety of ways at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. Offering practical information and advice, the book covers the major aspects of work-based learning, which include:

• accreditation of prior learning (APL)
• work-based projects
• learning agreements
• relevant innovative assessment methods
• quality assurance and enhancement mechanisms
• how technology can be utilised as a learning tool.

Featuring activities, case studies and useful hints and tips informed by a range of international scholars, it's the ideal companion for tutors of work-based learning students.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Abstract
It is common for learning and working to be considered separately, as distinct entities that are undertaken away from each other. Traditionally, education and training often take place independently of the workplace, with individuals not embarking on workplace activity until they have finished the required learning for that particular work role. In reality we continue to learn for our whole lives, and as much of our lives are spent at work, a good deal of learning takes place there. This means, of course, that learning isn’t always official or prescribed; often it is informal, ongoing and unacknowledged, but lifelong.
Ruth Helyer

1. How does work-based learning fit into higher education?

Abstract
IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL:
  • Look at the key characteristics of work-based learning
  • Be introduced to the importance of experiential learning
  • Be given an overview of some learning theories of particular significance for work-based learning
  • Be introduced to Mode 2 knowledge and transdisciplinary learning
  • See that both individual and organisational development arise from work-based learning
  • Compare the similarities between work-based learning and other flexible pedagogies
Ruth Helyer, Jonathan Garnett

2. Learning, teaching and assessment in work-based learning

Abstract
IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL:
  • Consider the influences of teaching, learning and assessment aimed at work-based learners: how it affects them, their organisation and their higher education institution
  • Reflect on learning strategies that work-based learning involves
  • Consider how to maximise learning opportunities from the workplace for the learners, their organisation and their higher education institution
  • Reflect on the change in role from ‘teacher’ to ‘facilitator’ in work-based learning and gain further understanding as to how to develop your own skills as a facilitator
  • Develop awareness of different work-based assessments and how these might suit diverse purposes for learners
Barbara Workman, Ruth Helyer

3. Flexible frameworks and building blocks

Abstract
IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL:
  • Be introduced to the key components central to designing a workbased curriculum framework
  • Consider what a framework could offer to your learners, your institution and your employer partners
  • Consider how work-based frameworks incorporate flexible approaches to learning, teaching and assessment in response to a variety of professional contexts for higher-level learning
  • See how flexible work-based frameworks can construct awards from short courses to full degrees, incorporating accreditation of in-company training, prior experiential and certificated learning, work-based projects and other learning activities
  • Become familiar with the differences between programme approval and academic accreditation for organisations and individuals and how these contribute to the operation of a work-based framework
  • Understand the academic infrastructure that is required to support a validated work-based curriculum framework, including QAA and professional body standards, the use of work-based level descriptors, institutional quality policies and procedures
Barbara Workman, Darryll Bravenboer

4. Negotiation and work-based learning

Abstract
IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL:
  • Find out what institutional conditions are favourable to the introduction of negotiated work-based learning
  • See which pedagogical theories underpin negotiated work-based learning
  • Examine what can be negotiated in a work-based learning project or programme
  • Consider the practicalities involved in ensuring that negotiated work-based learning can be formalised, documented and approved through learning agreements
  • Investigate the ways in which the process of negotiation can be experienced by learners and tutors
  • Look at the potential future of negotiated work-based learning and, particularly, if it could be framed in a new Professional Bachelors (BProf) award
Mike Laycock, Mary Karpel

5. Recognising and accrediting prior experiential learning

Abstract
IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL:
  • Clarify the importance of RPL/APL in WBL programmes through an overview of current pedagogic practices and theories of learning
  • Be offered illustrations of ways that credit can be used in WBL programmes
  • See the role of the tutor in supporting and assessing these accreditation processes
  • Be given an example of how technology has been utilised to manage these processes
  • Be introduced to the place of accredited company training activity in WBL programmes
  • Explore some common issues for tutors working in this area and some approaches for dealing with them
Pauline Armsby, Ruth Helyer

6. Turning practitioners into practitioner-researchers

Abstract
IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL:
  • Find that undertaking practitioner research can be viewed as developing an additional identity for work-based learners, whereby they learn further ways of thinking, feeling and acting
  • Be offered a multipurpose pedagogical scaffold for adult workbased learners, which provides initial boundaries but also acts as a springboard to key concepts and new ideas
  • Be given a way of conceptualising practitioner research that foregrounds and values practical change and practical outcomes within the work-based learner’s own context
  • Be introduced to a way of thinking about ‘reality’ that encourages change and action
  • Gain an understanding of pedagogical tools for facilitating practitioner-research learning with work-based learners
Tony Wall

7. Supporting work-based learners

Abstract
IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL:
  • Examine student support specifically related to the pedagogical differences in WBL
  • Learn to offer support that maintains a student-centred and student-led approach
  • Find tips for empowering learners to take charge of their learning to maximise the benefit for them and potentially their organisation
  • Think about working with employers to put in place support mechanisms within the organisation as well as the HEI
  • Acknowledge the role of the tutor (you) as a resource
  • Learn about structures, signposts and mechanisms which can be used to maintain momentum in your pedagogic relationship with work-based learners
Ann Minton, Anita Walsh

8. Quality enhancement and work-based learning

Abstract
IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL:
  • Explore themes of quality enhancement in education, in particular with regard to work-based learning
  • Be offered some illustrations of this via a series of case studies drawn from the enhancement of work-based learning in a variety of contexts
  • Be shown key aspects of quality enhancement in action
  • Explore the contested definition of enhancement in the context of higher education and its relationship to work-based learning
Helen Corkill, Mark Atlay

9. Using social media to enhance work-based learning

Abstract
IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL:
  • Be introduced to the most popular social media learning tools and platforms
  • Explore how you might approach the effective use of social media for work-based learning
  • Consider the importance of ‘identity management’ for tutors and lecturers engaging with social media in a work-based learning situation
  • Think about possible barriers to the use of social media in workbased learning
  • See the relative importance of text, image and video in social media usage
  • Weigh up the merits of different social media tools and platforms for work-based learning
Andy Price

10. Learning in the workplace globally

Abstract
IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL:
  • Consider the different terminologies surrounding learning which comes from work and work activity
  • Look at the meaning of the term ‘work-based learning’ and where this overlaps and intersects with other learning activities
  • Examine international terminology
  • Be offered some definitions around HE initiatives using experiential learning
  • Be able to explore the blurred boundaries between different routes to ‘learning by doing’
Ruth Helyer, Jenny Fleming

11. Learning to learn

Abstract
IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL:
  • Think about the ways that work-based learning (as already described in preceding chapters) and developing employability skills for more traditional students might intersect
  • Investigate what the term ‘employability skills’ covers in higher education
  • Consider ways to help all students to develop these skills
  • Be introduced to the importance of analytical reflection
  • Explore ways to help your students to foster an entrepreneurial mind-set
  • Discover ways in which your students can both substantiate and express their skills as they become lifelong learners and embrace continuing professional development (CPD)
Ruth Helyer, Andy Price

12. A transcultural dance: Enriching work-based learning facilitation

Abstract
IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL:
  • Examine what it might mean to be an international work-based learner
  • Appreciate the vibrant array of different perspectives international work-based learners offer, which can be rich learning assets
  • See a pedagogic model for work-based learning contexts where both you and your work-based learners gain new ways of thinking and acting
  • Share strategies for integrating diverse examples and cases, connect to and validate diverse experiences and prior knowledge and accommodate diverse work-based learner needs
  • Look at strategies which enable and sustain a learning environment across cultural boundaries conducive to work-based learning success
Tony Wall, Ly Tran

13. Promoting learning through work-based experience: Mimetic learning in action

Abstract
IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL:
  • See how the findings of projects within an international teaching fellowship (Billett, 2011), demonstrate that pedagogic practices and processes of engagement in higher education settings can be used to support learners to participate in work experiences, before, during and after those experiences
  • Find ways in which the learning that higher education students gain through work-based experiences might be understood and optimised
  • Read that much of this learning arises through students’ mimetic processes (observation, imitation and practice)
  • Investigate how support for this learning, and its integration into higher education programmes, will optimise its effect
  • Be offered illustrations of the augmentation that is provided by enriching students’ experiences through tutors’ pedagogic practices
  • Discover ways in which students can engage with what they experience and reconcile what they have learnt across the different settings of educational institutions and workplaces
Stephen Billett
Additional information