This chapter examines globalization in the wider context of development, examining the significance of globalization on development and the state. Proponents of globalization claim that the world is becoming smaller and more integrated. Optimists claim that globalization will offer benefits to all who integrate into the global economy and liberalize their economies, with Thomas Friedman (2000) arguing that globalization would simply flatten the world. On the other hand, critics claim that globalization has only increased the gaps between rich and poor. And despite the optimism globalization is not experienced the same way by everyone. Certain parts of the world are more globally connected than others. For example, much of Africa is not well connected to other regions through trade and investment flows. Thus one of the most significant challenges of globalization is that its effects are not evenly distributed. While some states have seen record levels of economic growth, others have seen their economies stagnate. Globalization poses serious challenges to development, even though it also brings great opportunities. This chapter provides an overview of how globalization can be defined, how globalization affects development, and in turn, the state. Additionally, this chapter offers insights to how globalization can be dealt with. Throughout we emphasize that much of this depends on how effective the state is in harnessing the energy of globalization and taking advantage of the possibilities.
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