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Many fundamental methodological issues of Artificial Intelligence have been of great importance in philosophy since ancient times. Such philosophers as Aristotle, St. Thomas Aquinas, William of Ockham, René Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, and Gottfried W. Leibniz have asked the questions: “What are basic cognitive operations?”, “What necessary conditions should a (formal) language fulfill in order to be an adequate tool for describing the world in a precise and unambiguous way?”, “Can reasoning be automatized?”.
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Alan Mathison Turing—outstanding mathematician, logician, and computer scientist, a researcher at the University of Cambridge, University of Manchester, and the National Physical Laboratory in London. He is considered as one of the “fathers” of computer science. Turing defined the universal (Turing) machine, which is a mathematical model of computation.
Allen Newell—a professor of computer science and cognitive psychology at Carnegie Mellon University. He received the Turing Award in 1975. Newell is a co-designer of the cognitive architecture Soar and the programming language IPL.
Herbert Alexander Simon—a professor at the Carnegie Mellon University. His excellent work concerns economics, sociology, psychology, political science, and computer science. He received the Turing Award in 1975 and the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1978.
John Clifford Shaw—a researcher at RAND Corporation, a co-designer of a programming langauge IPL.
Philosophical views which are important for Artificial Intelligence are presented in Sect. 15.1.
Methodological assumptions of cognitive simulation are discussed in Sect. 2.1.
John McCarthy—a professor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University, and Princeton University. He introduced the term Artificial Intelligence, AI. McCarthy received the Turing Award in 1971.
Yehoshua Bar-Hillel—an eminent philosopher (a disciple of Rudolf Carnap), mathematician, and computer scientist (the Bar-Hillel pumping lemma for context-free languages).
Alonzo Church—a professor of logic, mathematics, and philosophy at Princeton University and University of California, Los Angeles. He was a doctoral advisor for such famous scientists as Alan Turing, Stephen C. Kleene, Michael O. Rabin, J. Barkley Rosser, and Dana Scott.
Stephen C. Kleene—a professor of mathematics at Princeton University. His work concerns recursion theory, theory of computable functions, and regular expressions.
Lisp is one of the two oldest languages, along with Fortran, which are still used nowadays.
Edward Albert Feigenbaum—a professor of computer science at Stanford University. He is considered one of the AI pioneers. Herbert Simon was his doctoral advisor. In 1994 he received the Turing Award.
Joshua Lederberg—a professor at Stanford University and Rockefeller University, molecular geneticist, microbiologist, and one of the AI pioneers. In 1958 he received the Nobel Prize in medicine.
General means here independent from specific knowledge.
In expert systems knowledge is often formalized as a set of rules. We call such systems rule-based systems. Rule-based and expert systems are introduced in Chap. 9.
John Rogers Searle—a professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. His work concerns mainly the philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, and social philosophy. In 2000 he was awarded the Jean Nicod Prize.
Avram Noam Chomsky—a professor of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His research was very important for the foundations of computer science (mainly the theory of formal languages, programming languages, and computer linguistics), linguistics, and theory of mind. He received a lot of honorary doctorates from prestigious universities, including University of Bologna, Harvard University, Cambridge University, Uppsala University, McGill University, and Loyola University Chicago.
Our considerations concern Chomsky’s standard model.
Although the idea of a grammar generating a language, i.e., a grammar as a rewriting system, can be found in the work of logicians Axel Thue and Emil Post.
Roger Schank—a professor of psychology and computer science at Yale University and Northwestern University. His work concerns Artificial Intelligence (Natural Language Processing, case-based reasoning) and cognitive psychology.
Allan M. Collins—a psychologist, a professor of Northwestern University. His work concerns Artificial Intelligence and cognitive psychology.
Marvin Minsky—a mathematician, a professor of computer science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. For his contribution to AI he received the Turing Award in 1969.
Robert P. Abelson—a professor of psychology at Yale University. His work concerns applications of statistical analysis and logic in psychology and political science.
In fact, ELIZA was the first well-known chatbot, that is, a program which is able to simulate a conversation with a human being.
Joseph Weizenbaum—a professor of computer science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is considered one of the AI pioneers.
Terry Winograd—a professor of computer science at Stanford University. His work influenced Artificial Intelligence, the theory of mind, and Natural Language Processing.
Robert Wilensky—a professor of computer science at the University of California, Berkeley. His work concerns systems of natural language understanding, knowledge representation, and AI planning systems.
Daniel Gureasko Bobrow—one of the AI pioneers, a research fellow at the Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). He was the President of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence and the editor-in-chief of the prestigious journal Artificial Intelligence.
Ronald Jay Brachman—a head of AT&T Bell Laboratories Artificial Intelligence Principles Research Department and the DARPA Information Processing Techniques Office. His work concerns structural models of knowledge representation and description logic.
James G. Schmolze—a professor of computer science at Tufts University. His work concerns Artificial Intelligence, especially knowledge representation and reasoning with incomplete knowledge.
George Lakoff—a professor of linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley. At the end of the 1960s he contributed to the fundamentals of cognitive linguistics, which was in opposition to the Chomsky theory. His work influenced the development of cognitive science, theory of mind, Artificial Intelligence, and political science.
The characteristics presented in this chapter concern models of distributed connectionist networks. A more general approach is presented in Sect. 3.1.
For our considerations we assume that a process is emergent if it cannot be described on the basis of its elementary components. In other words, a (simplified) description of a process at a lower level is not sufficient for its description at a higher level.
Warren Sturgis McCulloch—a neurophysiologist and cybernetician working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Yale University, and University of Illinois at Chicago. His and Walter Pitts’ research into treating a nervous system as a universal computing device (inspired by the views of Gottfried Leibniz) resulted in the definition of an artificial neuron. He was the President of the American Society for Cybernetics.
Walter Harry Pitts, Jr.—a logician and mathematician working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Chicago (together with W.S. McCulloch, J. Lettvin and N. Wiener).
Frank Rosenblatt—a psychologist and computer scientist, a professor at Cornell University. His work concerns neural networks, neurodynamics, and cognitive systems. For his contribution to computational intelligence IEEE established the Frank Rosenblatt Award in 2004.
Later, more complex multi-layer perceptrons were constructed.
Seymour Papert—a mathematician and computer scientist. He is known for designing the LOGO programming language.
Teuvo Kohonen—a professor at Helsinki University of Technology and a prominent researcher of neural networks. In 1991 he was elected the first President of the European Neural Network Society.
John J. Hopfield—an eminent researcher of neural networks, a professor of physics and molecular biology at California Institute of Technology, Princeton University, and the University of California, Berkeley. He was the President of the American Physical Society.
David Everett Rumelhart—a professor of psychology at Stanford University and the University of California, San Diego. His work concerns applications of mathematics in psychology and artificial intelligence, and connectionist models. For his contribution to Artificial Intelligence the Rumelhart Prize was established in 2000.
Geoffrey E. Hinton—a professor of computer science at the University of Toronto, Cambridge University, and Carnegie Mellon University, and a psychologist. His work concerns applied mathematics and neural networks. In 2005 he received the IJCAI Award for Research Excellence and in 2001 the Rumelhart Prize.
Stephen Grossberg—a professor of mathematics, psychology, and biomedical engineering at Boston University. He was the first President of the International Neural Network Society and a founder of the prestigious journal Neural Networks.
Gail Carpenter—a professor of mathematics at Boston University. In the 1970s she published excellent papers on the use of dynamical systems for a generalization of Hodgkin-Huxley models (see Sect. 11.1).
Bart Kosko—a professor at the University of Southern California. His research contribution concerns neural networks and fuzzy logic.
Alex S. Fraser—an eminent researcher working in New Zealand, Australia, and the United States. His work concerns computer modeling in biology.
John Henry Holland—a professor of psychology and a professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the University of Michigan. He developed the (Holland’s) schema model, which is fundamental in the theory of genetic algorithms.
Ingo Rechenberg—a professor of computer science at the Technical University of Berlin, one of the pioneers of bionics.
Hans-Paul Schwefel—a professor of computer science at Dortmund University of Technology. His work concerns optimization theory (fluid dynamics) and system analysis.
Lawrence J. Fogel—a researcher and an author of patents on control theory, telecommunications, cybernetics, and biomedical engineering.
John Koza—a professor of computer science at Stanford University. His work concerns cellular automata, multi-agent systems, applications of computer science in molecular biology, and AI applications in electrical engineering, automatic control, and telecommunication.
Ronald Aylmer Fisher—a professor of genetics at University College London and the University of Cambridge. He was the principal founder of mathematical statistics. For his scientific contribution he was elected to the Royal Society in 1929.
For example, statistical pattern recognition, which is presented in Sect. 10.5.
Judea Pearl—a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, computer scientist and philosopher. In 2000 he published an excellent monograph on causality and its role in statistics, psychology, medicine, and social sciences entitled Causality: Models, Reasoning, and Inference (Cambridge University Press). For this book he received the prestigious Lakatos Award in 2001.
Lotfi Asker Zadeh—a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, electrical engineer, computer scientist, and mathematician. His work concerns Artificial Intelligence, control theory, logics, and linguistics.
Zdzisław Pawlak—a professor at Warsaw University of Technology and the Mathematics Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences. His work concerns mathematical foundations of computer science, mathematical linguistics, automated theorem proving, and formal models in genetics.
Because of the introductory nature of the monograph, we have only mentioned the fundamental dispute between Strong AI and Weak AI. Other important disputes include computationalists versus connectionists, neats versus scruffies, etc. For the reader who is interested in the history of AI, the books included in the Bibliographic note are recommended.
John Robert Anderson—a professor of psychology and computer science at Carnegie Mellon University, one of the pioneers of cognitive science, and a designer of intelligent tutoring systems. He was the President of the Cognitive Science Society.
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