Each of the preceding chapters has made us aware of the internal diversity of Europe and we have often used a shorthand of sociogeographical groups of countries in order to go beyond a discussion of individual cases. The groupings we have used have been based on the customary usages of the existing literature, but we have now collected enough data on different issues to reconsider those and assess their adequacy for identifying sub-sets of countries within Europe. Before tackling this, we should dispose of the further question whether there are any similarities that unite all or most of the countries of Europe against their principal external comparators: Japan, Russia, the United States and, as at least partly extra-European, Turkey.
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- Chapter 8