If the problem of agency in international politics is in the first place a matter of identifying the decision-makers who make a difference, the answers partly depend on the dimension of implementation. We must ask whether decisions once taken do get translated into the actions they imply, or whether what actually transpires is the product of delay, distortion and a further round of political con flict. A great deal of literature now exists which suggests the latter is far nearer to the truth than the former, which is, not unreasonably, expected by the public. Implementation has two distinct aspects: first the capacity to do what is intended, given the capabilities and instruments at hand, and second the slippage between political decision and administrative execution. The second aspect is closely related to the problem of bureaucratic politics already discussed, so the current chapter gives more attention to the first. Yet before either can be tackled the relationship between action and implementation needs to be considered.
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- Implementation: Foreign Policy Practice and the Texture of Power
- Macmillan Education UK
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- Chapter 6