Fundamental economic change like the Industrial Revolution is always the result of the interplay of many factors and it is seldom possible to distinguish between cause and effect; it is usually a two-way relationship. Thus the acceleration of economic growth and the development of new techniques in production cannot be separated from the rise in population that had taken place in Germany since the middle of the eighteenth century. It provided the economy with an expanding market for new goods as well as with a cheap workforce. At the same time this population increase was intimately connected with growing productive resources and their use, if only by the fact that an expanding economy offers more people the chance to marry at an earlier age and thus increase the rate of demographic reproduction.
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