Institutions are sets of rules, formal and informal, that states and other actors play by. In the international realm, such sets of rules have for some time been labelled ‘global governance’. Government in the strict sense is not taking place because there is no world government. But nor do we live in a world of raw anarchy where states are always at each other’s throats. Therefore, global governance is a ‘halfway house’ between anarchy at one extreme and a world state at the other (Weiss and Wilkinson 2014: 213). The third significant development is the expansion of transnational relations, that is, cross-border relations between individuals, groups and organizations from civil society. International non-governmental organizations (INGOs) are active in all major areas of regulation activity, including trade policy, the environment, disarmament or human rights, where they often work alongside governments. INGOs help pave the way for global public policy networks, defined as loose alliances of government agencies, international organizations, corporations, and elements of civil society such as nongovernmental organizations, professional associations, or religious groups that join together to achieve
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