European Union member states and most economies have enacted laws setting out acceptable workplace practices that often reflect International Labour Organization (ILO) standards. News of fatal accidents and the appalling living conditions of migrants construction workers in Qatar building football stadiums (Rajouria, 2015), and alleged abuses, including erratic or reduced payment of wages, passport confiscation, intimidation and debt bondage. Pattisson (2016, p. 14), offers an alarming insight into what happens when there are no state-enforced employment rules presenting what can be called a ‘dark’ side of international HR management. The reality of managing people in a global environment is also concerned with the challenges connected with regional wars and terrorism (Bader and Berg, 2014). This contemporary issue is illustrated, for example, with the mass evacuation of European workers in Libya in 2011. As antigovernment protests spread to Tripoli, oil companies, such as Royal Dutch Shell PLC and BP, organized flights to evacuate their expat workers or their families from the country (Winfield, 2011). The success of global business strategies, observes Lasserre (2012, p. 335, emphasis in original) relies on the ‘quality of the people’ who are in charge of its implementation. The field of international human resource management (IHRM) refers to all human resources (HR) practices used to manage people in companies operating in more than one country.
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