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About this book


This major new text on development theory and practice takes as its starting point the challenge of overcoming global poverty and inequality. It traces the origins of the idea of Development Studies and introduces the main methodologies and theories of development, and examines the challenges of the twenty-first century.
Also available is a companion website with extra features to accompany the text, please take a look by clicking below -https://www.macmillanihe.com/page/detail/Challenging-Global-Inequality/?K=9781403948236

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction: the Story so Far …

Abstract
In the aftermath of the Second World War, development studies emerged as a discipline concerned with bridging the gap between richer and poorer countries through economic growth. Confidence abounded among Western academics and politicians that this development project could be accomplished. Development was listed high on the priorities of both the wealthier and the poorer nations and the techniques and resources to achieve it were available. Never before had such a constellation of forces for overcoming global inequality come into alignment.
Alastair Greig, David Hulme, Mark Turner

Chapter 2. The Nature of Inequality and Poverty

Abstract
Inequality and poverty have long been major concerns within development thinking, but the relative emphasis on them has changed over time. While there are several strands to development debates over these concepts, the central issue has been whether inequality plays a key role in the processes that create and maintain poverty. As the following sections show, although inequality and poverty are closely interrelated — both as concepts and as social experiences — they need to be differentiated. As Lister (2004) points out, the way that an idea — such as poverty or inequality — is conceptualized has profound implications for the identification of its ‘causes’ and for the forms of public and private action that are claimed to be able to tackle social problems. In the present global context this would encourage us to ask:
  • What exactly do development theorists and practitioners mean when they talk about inequality and poverty?
  • Is development largely about reducing absolute poverty or should it also be about reducing inequality?
  • Can greater equity be achieved through developing countries ‘catching up’ economically or is redistribution (from rich to poor countries) and levelling down needed?
Alastair Greig, David Hulme, Mark Turner

Chapter 3. Measuring Development

Abstract
This chapter examines the scope of development studies and measurements of development. The first part takes up an issue introduced in the previous chapter — the use of statistical indicators to measure development. While the previous chapter focused on the relationship between inequality and poverty within societies, this chapter has a more comparative and global scope. The second issue concerns units of analysis. Historically, the social sciences have tended to emphasize ‘national’ over ‘local’ and ‘global’ units of analysis. The reasons for this are explored and problems with this approach identified. The chapter then moves to the specific focus of development studies — poorer countries — before exploring the historical and contemporary relevance of this unit of analysis.
Alastair Greig, David Hulme, Mark Turner

Chapter 4. The Roots of the Development Project

Abstract
The previous chapters have examined a range of themes that have remained contentious throughout the history of development studies. This chapter begins by stepping back into history to explore how the process of social change has been understood since the Enlightenment. The chapter then examines key issues that continue to resonate in analyses of global inequality: the relationship between poorer countries and the legacy of colonialism; the relationship between developmental pacesetters and late-comers; and the associated relationship between endogenous and exogenous forces in the process of development. These issues will reappear in different settings throughout the remainder of the book.
Alastair Greig, David Hulme, Mark Turner

Chapter 5. The Postwar Development Project

Abstract
The previous chapter explored how the social sciences and policymakers embraced postwar development as an intellectual and practical challenge in the wake of decolonization. The key issue in this chapter concerns how poorer countries were expected to become more modern. Competing perspectives attempted to explain the problems of underdevelopment, inequality and poverty and they designed policies to build modern nation-states, increase general prosperity and bridge the gap between the richer and poorer countries. Two approaches that dominated postwar development studies until the 1980s were modernization theory and dependency theory. Much of their analysis remains germane to the way in which global inequalities are understood in the twenty-first century.
Alastair Greig, David Hulme, Mark Turner

Chapter 6. The Framework of Early 21st-Century Development

Abstract
State-centred models of development had lost much of their allure by the 1980s. The end of the Cold War encouraged a ‘triumphalist’ sentiment within the USA that proclaimed that the new century would be controlled by its benevolent hand in coordination with the invisible hand of the market. This chapter assesses this neoliberal approach to development before describing the global financial architecture of the post-Cold War order. The values underpinning this neoliberal approach placed a stronger emphasis on market-oriented growth, although many critics argued that this new order exacerbated inequalities between and within countries.
Alastair Greig, David Hulme, Mark Turner

Chapter 7. The Millennium Development Challenge

Abstract
The past half-century has been both the best and worst of times, depending on how the evidence is assessed (UNDP 2003: 40). The postwar period can be viewed as an era of remarkable achievement in human progress, in which technological innovation flourished, global commerce expanded significantly and a lower proportion of the world’s population than ever before lived in poverty. Others, however, have claimed that global development has been a failure. Almost everyone would agree, however, that overcoming global poverty and multiple inequalities remain key challenges for the new millennium. This chapter examines the latest response by the world community to this quest. It also provides an opportunity to review the local, regional and global outcomes of postwar development.
Alastair Greig, David Hulme, Mark Turner

Chapter 8. Globalization and Inequality

Abstract
During the 1990s, the concept of globalization became ubiquitous. It elicited the widest variety of responses, from those who hailed it as the harbinger of universal fortune to those who thought it forewarned the four horsemen of the Apocalypse. It cut across left/right boundaries and lent its name to the largest anti-systemic mass movement of the contemporary era. It remains a ‘defining issue’ for the the twenty-first century (Bhagwati 2005: 3). This chapter begins by defining the constituent features of globalization; before going on to examine how various writers understand its significance. It then explores the impact of globalization on cultural practices and on the state, before attempting to ‘map’ different approaches to globalization.
Alastair Greig, David Hulme, Mark Turner

Chapter 9. Modernity, Development and their Discontents

Abstract
Throughout this book, most approaches to development have assumed that the poorer countries can emulate the earlier developmental ‘prototypes’ and follow the path to modern development experienced by western Europe, the USA and the NICs. Despite the theoretical and political controversies encountered along the way, it has been difficult to avoid comparisons with modern western development. In both modernization theory and dependency theory, rich countries figure prominently either as prototypes to emulate or as the obstacles to that emulation. Furthermore, both Cold War superpowers were engaged in an ideological battle to demonstrate the supremacy of their form of modernity. Rarely did postwar developmental models question modernity itself, with its emphasis on industrialization, modern economic growth, urbanization, rational economic calculation, growth in rates of Gross National Product, economies of scale and higher levels of material consumption.
Alastair Greig, David Hulme, Mark Turner

Chapter 10. Development, Politics and Participation

Abstract
It has been apparent throughout this book that there is a strong link between the distribution of power and the establishment and maintenance of structures of inequality and poverty. This chapter examines various aspects of these unequal power relations through the conceptual lens of politics. This involves looking at the struggles that have taken place on ‘macro’ and ‘micro’ levels to bring ‘power to the people’. They involve democratization, decentralization and participation.
Alastair Greig, David Hulme, Mark Turner

Chapter 11. Conclusion: the Ends of Development and the End of Inequality

Abstract
This book has dealt with two contentious concepts — development and inequality — and has shown that developmental debates invariably lead to the question of inequality. This concluding chapter reviews different approaches to development and emphasizes two key points made throughout the book: that contemporary approaches to development have deep historical roots; and that the meaning we attach to the ‘ends of development’ will determine the weight attached to the importance of contemporary global inequalities.
Alastair Greig, David Hulme, Mark Turner
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